Friday, December 23, 2011
Thursday, December 22, 2011
Leonared Euler dominated the 1700s after Isaac Newton and Liebniz started analyses(the mathematicians word for calculus and generalizations like calculus of variations, complex analyses . . . later in the 1800s tensor analyses). He pushed analyses about as far as it could be and number theory also till Frederick Gauss's work on congruent numbers and differential geometry.
Dunham does point out that Leonard Euler was human. Some stuff I've read of what Leonard Euler missed would be fourier analyses and elliptic functions. Frederick Gauss found elliptic functions but did not publish. He found non-euclidean geometry and didn't publish those either out of not wanting to deal with the fearing general populace who would call him satin or something. Bottom line is after Leonard Euler with Frederick Gauss and others, mathematics became abstract everything; abstract algebra(alternative algebras from group, ring, and field theory to invariant theory and quaternions . . . a generalization of complex numbers), non-euclidean geometry, infinity was conquered by George Cantor(for the most part, there was Galileo's hint in his Two New Sciences: great book! Full of the scientific adventurous spirit!), numbers were replaced by set theory(george cantor, but also Richard Dedekind) as the most fundamental mathematics(some mathematicians today would say category theory has replaced set theory as the most fundamental mathematics; i'm not there yet; i have gotten through set theory and deductive logic books like Suzanne K. Langer's "Introduction to Symbolic Logic"; great books! Don't let the title fool you! It shows how abstraction works and is related to the deriving of symbolic logic and hence mathematics from language!). It's been related that another George Cantor, a historian not related to the transfinite numbers theory, made a history of mathematics from the few scraps of ancient times up to 1800(the end of the Leonard Euler time and end of classical mathematics period); it filled four thousand page volumes; to do a comparable, bio brief, history of mathematics of the 1800s alone would take twenty volumes!(I'd recommend Felix Klien's history of mathematics in the 1800s; i'll go ahead and point out perhaps the major dominant idea that continued to dominate up to the solving of the poincare conjecture just a few years ago . . . the relation between rieman surfaces and algebraic geometry.
- i've debated whether to post this on this scientific humanism blog for awhile now. I just decided to post it just to inspire and show the excitement of the mathematical spirit. I just found some more videos perhaps only recently posted on youtube; they were at the clay institute of mathematics for awhile. I'll of course post it tomorrow and hopefully i can find more quality mathematics videos!
Sunday, December 18, 2011
Steve Wolfram argues for a kind of technology mining instead of say mathematical modeling. I and Jacob Bronowski will point out that your not going to find the quadratic formula laying around on the ground cruncking out the patterns of nature. We know that mathematics is an idealization. But, Mr Wolfram wants to go much further.
Even if he's right, I feel that there's a bit of a problem with how far he's going with this. Assuming he's right, wouldn't the use of fire by Homo Erectus, the use of animals, windmills kind of like technological mining of stuff they didn't really understand? How about artificial selection of animals ten thousand years ago of both animals and planets to make agriculture civilization to happen? Well, maybe! But, it's mathematics that has made those things really fly; genetics and molecular biology period. Or, thermodynamics and steam engines. Shoot, there's natural nuclear reactions found by geologists; maybe if humans(or intelligence in general) had figured out how to mine enough uraneum and just put enough together, they could have made at least a dirty bomb back thousands of years ago! But, without the mathematics, nobody would have made the trinity test happen(or a pathway to the stars - nuclear powered spacecraft).
The above points to something I've been trying to think about more recently. That despite the fact that mathematicians can come up with much mathematics, the mathematics isn't finished until it's logically proved; and, the process of doing these proofs often leads to more mathematics(the irrationality of the square root of two is one immediate example; linear algebra coming from substitions of equations to solve the general third degree equation is another recent one I've found; the recent solutions to Fermat's Last theorem and the Poincare conjecture leading to much of the topology of the 20th century are other more recent examples). Yes, one can do technology without mathematics; but, mathematics gives it wings.
Another more science and mathematics topic I've been trying to think about recently to post(other than all this philosophy!) is chaos theory. The science of astronomy eventually led to great clocks from the 1300s to the Nuremberg egg as shown by James Burke connections videos(and his books; the books have much the same but some more details of course; the videos actually have details not shown in the books as well!) posted throughout this blog). What about the mathematics since? What is that leading to? Some people say number theory has no applications; well, computers for one disproves that. But, I'm starting to like chaos theory as another answer. I've seen chaos theory applications recently applied to nuclear fusion(instead of fission that's we've been using so far; in case my readers don't know; i don't know who most of my readers are!) and electron microscopes! Chaos theory in terms of, or related to Steve Wolfram above below,
I'd like to point out that the chaos theorists have this idea of going from a strange attractor state to a regular attractor state and then back to a chaotic state; and, they have shown they can go from chaotic to any of a given chaotic attractors possible stable states. Could one say they can go from irreducible complexity to reducible computational complexity - kind of like Mr Wolfram's technology mining he's talking about here?
Friday, December 16, 2011
Thursday, December 15, 2011
Wednesday, December 7, 2011
I'd hate to saturate this blog with much science news as much as I'd hate to do likewise with a bunch of history of religion; but, seems this announcement could be . . . pretty big.
The link above is pretty low key as far as what could be announced. They're probably still number crunching and playing double blind experiments with each other; but, as other science news channels have leaked, http://www.math.columbia.edu/~woit/wordpress/?p=4212
Quoting, "Heuer’s message to all CERN personnel says the December 13 announcements will be “significant progress in the search for the Higgs boson, but not enough to make any conclusive statement on the existence or non-existence of the Higgs.” Presumably they’re waiting for 5 sigma before claiming conclusive proof." Von Heuer is a kind of president of Cern and the Large Hadron Collider. Bottom line, they think they've got a low energy higgs spotted.
Key word phase is 'low energy.' Any higgs theory(and there's many different higgs theories; part of the Lhc's goal will be to determine which higgs if any) has multiple higgs. So, when they power up the LHC this coming up march, they'll be looking to confirm this, find the rest, find more things like dark matter, extra dimensions, and surprises.
This is big for me at least. I grew up reading and rereading Crease and Mann's "The Second Creation"; so, for me the electroweak unification experimental confirmation of early 1980s has always been the last great particle physics done. Yes, they've done some stuff since then, but this is something that's been in the waiting for a long time.
I don't know if I've noted on this blog(I did in the previous incarnation of this blog; i posted the significant science, technology, and mathematics of all previous history; that's a lot; and I havn't felt like doing that again on this blog!); but, in the 1700s, Laplace came out with his five volume "Celestial Mechanics." It was a generalization of Newton's principia. Newton's principia was really about solving the kepler problem. The Kepler problem is about deriving Kepler's three laws from Newton's laws and his inverse square law of gravitation. Newton does more stuff in his principia like the tides, the precession of the equinoxes and so on. Well, for a hundred years, mathematicians really developed analyses far beyond Isaac Newton - things like differential equations, calculus of variations, and some complex analyses. Lagrange generalized galileo's(I really need to review here) laws. Anyways, Laplace generalized Newton's Principia with all this massive amounts of 1700 analyses(the mathematicians word for calculus and all its vast generalizations). Laplace's "Celestial Mechanics" was kind of a must read back then. Hamilton made an early name for himself by finding an error in the book(today, the book is totally obsolete; nobody reads it; i've seen two volume celestial mechanics where the mathematics is topology; that's more or less where we are today!). Mathematicians using it and the growing astronomical data theoretically predicted that there must be a planet beyond recently discovered Uranus(uranus discovered in the 1700s). Most astronomers laughed at that notion; theoretically predicting where a planet would be. But, eventually, someone did!(in 1846; uranus was discovere in 1780 I just recalled). That was the great thing done by Laplace's "Celestial Mechanics"!
I bring up the discovery of Neptune's discovery, because, seems to me that the discovery of the Higgs is similar. It's discovery will be far more monumental of course! The higgs to me is almost certainly to exist because the higgs is part of the Inflationary theory which was observationaly confirmed by the Cobe in the late 1980s(another major development during my life!). I've seen some physicists and cosmologists who don't want to believe in the higgs and inflationary theory! I believe in mathematics as this blog shows in terms of social and history theory. And so, I'm sure some higgs theory is true! December 13, 2011 looks to be a major announcement date for the Higgs discovery, for humanity!
---day before Dec 13 meeting update,
this article had a couple of good things to say; if this low energy higgs is confirmed later next year(after the next round of energy upgrades to the large hadron collider), then it could be the first experimental confirmation of string theory!
Thursday, December 1, 2011
This posts title says it all. Nuclear fission made safe! And, we could have done this decades ago! As the article points out, it appears that the worlds leaders are in the know on this. One way or another, we'll get to safe nuclear energy. And, I would say we'll get through the twentry first century energy problems.
Tuesday, November 29, 2011
This is a picture of a new microwave interferometric telescope . . . obviously in the southern hemisphere; you can tell that by the irregular galaxies pictured along with the telescope array along with the milky way center.
Friday, November 18, 2011
I've decided to post this on my blog here finaly because our current civilization is defined by industrialism started around the 1700s. This technologized agriculturalism has a dependence on a finite energy source(human lifetime speaking; over geologic time periods the supply of coal and oil can be replenished). As I've suggested on this blog, knowledge and really technology comes from daming up nature - such as what agriculturalism did by making us have to perform pest control, irrigation, and fertilization. These are finite cuts in the infinit continuity of the universe. So, they lead to problems(mathematical problems defined?); one answer leads to one or more problems and so technological development generally accellerates. Well, the finite energy source dependence of industrialism presents a problem. How to move to another energy source!
One solution is space colonization, which doesn't look like it will happen without some other solution - such as nanomanufacturing, nuclear fusion(preferably over fission). Well, nanotechnology is developing fast; but, honestly, looks like the transition to the nanotechnological era will be rough indeed! Full of cold snaps and heat waves!
----------in a December 17, 2011 update, looks like the effort to meet the five year deadline is too late!(and there was a big conference and major laws passed by the global community to deal with this five year deadline), http://www.nzherald.co.nz/world/news/article.cfm?c_id=2&objectid=10773020
Tuesday, November 15, 2011
and a longer version . . . !
Here's a couple more youtube science that are halfway worth watching. These can be viewed as a celebration of today's announcement of the recent protein engineering breakthroughs being experimentally confirmed. http://www.physorg.com/news/2011-11-creation-largest-human-designed-protein-boosts.html
Well, I should go ahead and show this last one I found recently.
With the molecular simulation software for dna and proteins at least(Eric Drexler wishes for these peptides to get some simulation software as well; maybe so), and all these dna breakthroughs and protein engineering confirmed practical, I'd expect at least soft nanotechnology to make an impact well within this year! From there, some groups will be anxious to bootstrap(using the soft dna/protein nanotechnology) to a more robust nanomanufacturing; and from there hopefully to daimondoid nanomanufacturing. But, i think nanomanufacturing will do plenty of wonders(for good or bad) before even then.
This image is one of Hubble's earliest and still greatest hits!
Monday, November 14, 2011
Saturday, November 12, 2011
Friday, November 11, 2011
There is much more to say about this video series. Finding the other episodes should be pretty easy. Anyways, in episode 2 or 3, Richard Rudgley talks to somebody who says language might have been started by the use of stones for arithmetic reasons. In my previous blog, I suggested that maybe mathematics helped inspire people to think of agriculturalism. They may have played with plants in geometric patterns and set them in given places. As they came back to these places, they noticed the plants grown where they put them in the ground. I'm forgetting everything I thought of before actually. I'd like to note further here that Morris Kline in his "Mathematics in Western Culture" that mathematics could not have come about from practical reasons of starving for food first. He gives the example that astronomy and the Egyptian mathemtics to do their astronomy could not have been concieved while lost out in sea. They must have come up with the mathematics first which then inspired the astronomy which then inspired navigating in uncharted waters. This may go for agriculturalism as well.
I'd like to further note that the magic language ability seemingling of Human capability only of moving words around like john loves lucy; lucy loves john is a bit of mystery. I had suggested in my previous blog that it might have been mathematics that inspired this language ability. The above conversation of Richard Ridgley with the language origins expert(expert?) suggest likewise as well. Note: i'm not describing everything that needs to be described; to say the least, apply what I and Jacob Bronowski suggest about the nature and origin of mathematical thought in the second to last article of this blog.
Further notes! Remarkably, Richard Rudgley doesn't mention the tally sticks of tens of thousands of years ago(up to thirty thousand years!).
Thursday, November 10, 2011
Wednesday, November 9, 2011
Tuesday, November 8, 2011
This galaxy is unusual in the gas filaments extending tens of thousands of light years. They're probably kept there by magnetic fields generated by the interaction the central black hole interacting with an entire galactic collision.
Monday, November 7, 2011
Saturday, November 5, 2011
Friday, November 4, 2011
Thursday, November 3, 2011
Wednesday, November 2, 2011
One reason for this is way computations take place. In computers, calculations occur in strict pipelines, one at a time.
In the brain, however, many calculations take place at once. Each neuron communicates with up to 1000 other neurons at any one time. And since the brain consists of billions neurons, the potential for parallel calculating is clearly huge.
Computer scientists are well aware of this difference and have tried in many ways to mimic the brain's massively parallel capabilities. But success has been hard to come by.
Today, Anirban Bandyopadhyay at National Institute for Materials Science in Tsukuba, Japan, unveil a promising new approach. At the heart of their experiment is a ring-like molecule called 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-p-benzoquinone, or DDQ.
This has an unusual property: it can exist in four different conducting states, depending on the location of trapped electrons around the ring. What's more, it's possible to switch the molecule from one to state to another by zapping it with voltages of various different strengths using the tip of a scanning tunnelling microscope. It's even possible to bias the possible states that can form by placing the molecule in an electric field
Place two DDQ molecules next to each other and it's possible to make them connect. In fact, a single DDQ molecule can connect with between 2 and 6 neighbours, depending on its conducting state and theirs. When one molecule changes its state, the change in configuration ripples from one molecule to the next, forming and reforming circuits as it travels.
Given all this, it's not hard to imagine how a layer of DDQ molecules can act like a cellular automaton, with each molecule as a cell in the automaton. Roughly speaking, the rules for flipping cells from one state to another are set by the bias on the molecules and the starting state is programmed by the scanning tunnelling microscope.
And that's exactly what these guys have done. They've laid down 300 DDQ molecules on a gold substrate, setting them up as a cellular automaton. More impressive still, they've then initialised the system so that it "calculates" the way heat diffuses in a conducting medium and the way cancer spreads through tissue.
And since the entire layer is involved in the calculation, this a massively parallel computation using a single layer of organic molecules.
Bandyopadhyay and co say the key feature of this type of calculation is the fact that one DDQ molecule can link to many others, rather like neurons in the brain. "Generalization of this principle would...open up a new vista of emergent computing using an assembly of molecules," they say.
Clearly an intriguing prospect.
Massively Parallel Computing An An Organic Molecular Layer"
I can't say that I've posted about every significant science and technological development here on this blog. But, this one is farely significant and generaly doesn't get mentioned even on science news websites.
Tuesday, November 1, 2011
Monday, October 31, 2011
Sunday, October 30, 2011
Saturday, October 29, 2011
Friday, October 28, 2011
Thursday, October 27, 2011
Wednesday, October 26, 2011
Tuesday, October 25, 2011
I've mentioned a few biblical quotes that seemed to be vagueness manipulation like the god telling Moses "I am that I am" and Paul supposedly saying I will be a jew to a jew, a greek to a greek in order to convert. Godel's theorems show that a consistent set of finite axioms cannot prove an infinity of truths; but a vague inconsistent set of axioms can. I've argued that God is a vague inconsistent concept that allows to sweep problems under the rug. I've seen a statement in the dead sea scrolls when reading John Allegro's "The Dead Sea Scrolls and the Christian Myth" that is this vagueness gaming. I beleive this goes further.
Seems to me that there's some people that are about reason. Others, play these vagueness games. I would argue that these people play fear games to keep from thinking. I would further argue that most people get into various social groups so those groups can protect them from the general fear mongering of society. If somebody gives them irrational trouble, they just get their friends to go and take care of the given group of people.
I would further argue that people don't question assumptions; they also make over-under generalizations. One of the major signs of a fear monger is they don't ask questions; they just play fear games.
What's really bad about supernatural religions is they hide behind babies, mothers, wives and so on. They play crying games. Eusebius in his introduction to his "History of the Church" notes that the persecutions the Christians accussed the roman empire were overblown. Christians are always quick to point out the persecutions as proof of their religion.
Monday, October 24, 2011
Sunday, October 23, 2011
Saturday, October 22, 2011
Friday, October 21, 2011
Thursday, October 20, 2011
astro picture for the day and youtube for the day/ Russian space radio telescope with a interferometric baseline close to the moon news
I've finally found some news about Spectre R. It's first data should be sometime from September to October; so, give it another month or two to hear anything!
Wednesday, October 19, 2011
Tuesday, October 18, 2011
Monday, October 17, 2011
Sunday, October 16, 2011
Friday, October 14, 2011
Thursday, October 13, 2011
Anyways, the video speaks for itself.
To bad most people are not free thinkers!
Dna-Nanotech may be a step or two . . . a year or less? . . . from really getting going. Certainly, there can be more robust nano-manufacturing; but, could dna-nanotechnology be good enough for most applications? If it can align nanotubes and graphene for macroscale production, then I'd say yes!
Wednesday, October 12, 2011
Tuesday, October 11, 2011
Monday, October 10, 2011
Saturday, October 8, 2011
Friday, October 7, 2011
A part of the Tarantula nebula; the Tarantula nebula is the largest star forming region in our galactic neihborhood and it just happens to be part of the large magellanic cloud(an irregular galaxy that will be stripped and integrated in our galaxy over billions of years)
Thursday, October 6, 2011
thought for the day/Gobekli Tepe pushes the first city ruins back to 10,000 years ago(still in the same ballpark numbers of when agricultural life started)
Wednesday, October 5, 2011
Future shock evolved out of culture shock. I'd like to point out that things like going from high school to college presents a little culture shock.
Information overload defines Future shock as well. As Mathematicians know well, abstraction, idealization serve the purpose of only considering data and information that seems most relevant to a given problem. So, it seems to me that , future shock can be overcome by a mathematical skilled mind.
Tuesday, October 4, 2011
As of paragraph two, the main concerns are problems of getting to space whether govenment or commercial/private.
The Issue is money. Trying to sell space colonization and exploration/expansion to the public has always been a problem because your asking them(both government and non-science public) to fund a minority(scientists are a minority in this high tech age!) to go storming the heavens!
What’s more, these very same people are struggling to understand how to make an economy working! The answer is obvious from perhaps a radical scientists perspective; science and technology(hence space; although, nanotech calls into question space expansion as the only solution to humanities woes) is how you generate wealth! Look, you want to make jobs? Make new science and technologies! Since we’ll never know the whole truth, there’s always room for some new scientific and technological discovery! Space also fits in nicely with this arguement!
Monday, October 3, 2011
Sunday, October 2, 2011
Both prove Einstein's General Theory of Relativty; even with the recent excitement of neutrinoes going faster than the speed of light, the evidence above ensures that you can't just throw General Relativty(actually special relativity) out the door!
Saturday, October 1, 2011
Friday, September 30, 2011
Here's a Jerusalem coin of like 400 B.C. of Yehwey. Who says the Jews didn't make art of concepts and historical events they thought were big? And if so, why didn't they make any Jesus Christ coins?
- This is a Jewish coin 55 B.C. "In about 55 BC the Roman moneyer Aulus Plautius issued a denarius with a peculiar reference to Judaism in its reverse inscription. Its obverse bears a turreted head of Cybele, probably a reference to the Megalesian games, sponsored by Rome's curule aediles, a title Plautius included on his coin. The reverse shows a man kneeling aside a camel, extending an olive branch to a Roman soldier. The legend inscribed on the reverse, of which 150 different die types are known, is "BACCHIVS IVDAEUS"
This is proof of mixing Judaism with Greek sungod religion(see my Gospel of Truth about sungods and Jesus Christ). It's also of course further evidence that if Jesus Christ had actually existed, they would have made coins of him. But, there aren't any . . .