My link to this before has been taken down; but, now, someone else has put it up all in one video instead of split into parts one and two!
Another post of mine pointed out one of the last places Neanderthals lived - Gibralter rock and the caves. The recent Febuary 2015 Scientific Amercian magazine shows Neanderthal abstract language and/or some kind of symbolism. This isn't just natural language. I don't know if it's mathematics; but, it's definitely abstract symbolism of some kind.
photo courtesy of Stewart Finlayson of the Gibraltar Museum.
This engraving goes back 39,000 B.C. in Gorham's cave, Gibraltar.
- Below is a new Homo Erectus spinoff species like the Neanderthals - intelligent species that lived at the same time other intelligent species lived - Neanderthals and Homo Sapiens for about a hundred thousand years; both and now a third almost certainly evolved from Homo Erectus, a species that overcome it's ecological boundaries to conquer the known world(came out of Africa).
Image credit - Y. KAIFU
- This Big-Toothed Fossil May Represent A Primitive New Human Species
"Anthropologists have learned that Neanderthals, Denisovans and Homo floresiensis (a.k.a. the "Hobbit Human") lived in Europe and Asia within that time frame. Penghu 1, which is described in the latest issue of Nature Communications, adds to that already impressive list and might have co-existed — and even interbred — with our species"
- The reasons mathematics developed in the Human species is still a mystery!