Saturday, April 30, 2011

thought for the day

I've rewritten this; and, I thinkit's better!
Manking has started out not knowing much more than that it could eat this or that; to run when told and all those things every other living thing knows. When Humanity started using technology, it became dependent on it; the use of those tools created problems that Humanity had to figure out how to make better tools and learn the universe. 
The need to improve those tools and learn ever more mathematics and science accellerated because each solution seemed to present more problems.
I  bring this up  because I noted a week or so ago that the logic above has connections with my ideas of the origin of mathematical problems down below - the nature and origin of mathematical knowledge.

quote for the day

"In mathematics, of all places, finality is a chimera. Its rare appearances are witnessed only by the mathematically dead." - E.T. Bell

Friday, April 29, 2011

quote for the day

"The whole of mathematical history may be interpreted as a battle for supremacy between these two concepts. This conflict may be but an echo of the older strife so prominent in early Greek philosophy, the struggle of the one to subdue the many. But the image of the battle is not wholly appropriate, in mathematics at least, as the continuous and discrete have frequently helped one another to progress." - E.T. Bell

Thursday, April 28, 2011

Wednesday, April 27, 2011

quote for the day

"Dissent is good for the souls of all concerned." - E.T. Bell

welcome to the new nanotube era!

Dont' ask me why the writing has to be centered.  Getting to the point now, humanity has lived through the stone age(which really went from like four million years ago with the Australopithacines) to the bronz age of what three thousand B.C.?  Then there was the iron age around a thousand B.C.  Each period took less time to get to the next I think.  This is interesting in the light of the nanotube era we are in now(the video above is proof of this); how long till the next materials revolution?  Think decades if not years!  As soon as nanomanufacturing gets going, we'll take the next step beyond the nanotube era! 

Tuesday, April 26, 2011

youtube for the day/ nano-factory

This type of nanofactory won't be possible for at least a decade.  But, dna/rna/protein nanofactories are within five years now. Rna recently made some breakthroughs which will make soft-nanotechnology guys want to combine the two(dna and rna).  Rna can do actual chemistry; dna does mostly the self-organizing and scaffold functions.  Protein nanotechnology may have also made a breakthrough; recently, there was use of viruses(researchers know how to deal with them) to help accellerate directed artificial selection(as in natural selection) to help speed the design and construction of proteins.  This was farelly recent; give it a month and we'll see just how fast an impact this could have because the dna-nanotechnology is pretty well developed right now.  There's also been an interesting breakthrough about confining proteins to help them sustain their catalyst reactivity rate; dna-nanotech and that ability alone makes dna-nanofactory possible before 2011 is out in my opinion.

quote for the day

"Believe nothing on heresay. Do not believe in traditions because they are old, or in anything on the mere authority of myself or any other teacher." Buddha

Monday, April 25, 2011

youtube for the day/not knot

quote of the day

"While the artist communication is linkd forever with its original form, that of the scientists is modified, amplified, fused with the ideas and results of others." - Max Delbruck

Sunday, April 24, 2011

Alan Guth inflationary theory youtube

Here's one video I had on my previous blog. I post it again because there was recently an article about matter/antimatter being the cause of dark energy(proved by the cobe satellite). I for one have thought of and it seems that others have also that inflation is the dark energy; or at least, dark energy is a kind of inflationary aftershock!

the origin and nature of mathematical knowledge

Image Credit & Copyright: Optical (RGB+Ha): Aldo Mottino & Ezequiel Bellocchio (Argentina); Infrared: ESO/J. Emerson/VISTA.

I like to compare mathematical concepts to an Arch(so did Jacob Bronowski; but, I think I've figured out the true comparison between the two). The arch represents the unification of concepts, the delicate balance between too little and too much that all mathematical concepts are. The arch also can't be built like a crossbeam(two vertical columns with a crossbeam laid on top haphazardly).  The post and lintel is constructed from current perspective viewpoint. Kind of like what our senses initially say about the Earth - that it is flat.  It takes looking behind the curtain, figuratively speaking, to see that the Earth is round and it goes around the sun and not the other way. The arch takes insight. Those insights are often underlying structural analogies.

 All mathematical concepts are abstractions. Abstractions are the general form that many structures can take on. Take a given relation, and many different content can make sense with that relation. I love you; you love me; two apples and two oranges make up the number two. One could say the arch is composed of a verb, the keystone, and the contents that make sense with that keystone; each elemnt of the arch is differnt in some ways(some being higher or lower on the arch), but they have a similar relation with respect to the keystone.

The elements of the arch that make sense with respect to the keystone is similar once again to the way the various subject and object nouns of a verb need to make sense. This making sense with respect to a given verb(see Suzanne K Langer's "Introduction to Symbolic Logic" for a good discussion of how symbolic logic relates to the abstract nature of mathematics) brings up something else I think I've found about the mathematical activity.

I've been watching James Burke's "Connections" and "The Day the Universe Changed" a lot, and I can't help noticing certain technological groupings. James Burke tries to show the connections between science and all aspects of the human condition through history. Some connections are just kind of outside influences things. But, some connections between the developments of technologies seem to me to have a far more profound 'connections.' Like in episode one of Connections(the first series is the only one i've seen), he shows how agriculture led to a host of technologies. He shows how agriculture leads to the specialization of jobs; the farmers do the farming allowing others to do government, military duty, maybe further down the road some can do science freely. I point out that 'clearing the fields' suddenly makes mankind need to take on the jobs of irrigation, fertilization, and pest control. These concepts 'make sense' in relation to the verb/act of 'clearing of the fields.' James Burke mentions other possible related technologies that makes sense with respect to agricultural civilization - like storage containers for the surplus grain. In episode three, he goes into how the horse changed the economies and created a bunch of associated technologies just like agriculture did - the horseshoe, the sturip, the metallergy of the knight's armour. In episode two, he mentions how the vacuum leads to noting how mice suffocate in it; flames go out, bells don't ring in vacuums; and he notes that with the vacuum, following the history after can take many different paths - "we could go from the vacuum pump to the investigation of air to the discovery of oxygen, or vacuum pump to steam engine, or to the cathode ray tube and so on. See, by 'clearing of the fields' so to speak, certain concepts just come about; they make sense with respect to daming nature up so to speak. I associate this daming up of nature(creating a water dam 'generates' electricity) with idealization in mathematics. Idealization leads to the definitions in axiomatic mathematics. This all probably came to my mind because I've read Jacob Bronowski's "Origins of Knowledge and Imagination".

In Jacob Bronowski's "Origins of Knowledge and Imagination", he points out that we figure out the universe from our current perspective; and, our current perspective is always finite while the universe is this infinitely connected whole. To get at nature, we have to introduce an artificiality(an idealization/ in mathematics, a definition); this definition creates a vacuum in nature that we need to introduce the keystone and the elements of the arch to keep that vacuum from collapsing back in on us again. Jacob Bronowski argues that when we first evolved from our non-human selves, we were one with nature; our language was command sentences. And that we decodes the words from the sentence by a process of generalization and specialization. His ideas are nice, but until I watched James Burke's "Connections and The Day the Universe Changed" enough, and noticed these 'clearing of the fields' and how fundamental the vacuum has been to the investigation of new concepts and technologies, even I sometimes wondered how seriously to take his little book.

For a quick mathematical example; introduce a line on to two parallel lines; what makes sense is that opposite angles are equal. It's pure language. Physicists love to point out Romer's discovery of the finite speed of light. He observed the motions of the Galilean moons and couldn't help notice an inconsistency in the times of the moons motions; the only thing that made sense was that the light must have a finite speed of light; establishing a boundary creates problems; the establishing of a boundary asks what is the opposite shape of the boundary? The Newtonian laws had a certain boundary established; Romer applied them to the motions of the moons of Jupiter and found a problem; the opposite shape of the consistent boundary established meant the finite speed of light.

Point is that a certain noun words 'work' or 'make sense' with a given verb. Similarly, the finite speed of light 'made sense' with respect to newtonian mechanics; a consistent 'daming up of nature.'

More mathematical examples would be how the irrational numbers were derived out of a problem of the pythagorean theorem; take the case where the sides equal one and bring down the hypotenuse; this line cannot be measured! Similarly, negative numbers, imaginary numbers in quadratic equations, group and field theory in Galois solution(or disproof) of the general equation of the fifth degree all 'spring out' of daming up nature in just the right way.

In logical proof, you split up the conjecture in terms of hypotheses and conclusion; you know your rules of how to transform one side of another to get things on one side and you find the keystone the bridges the vacuum made up.

Einstein's theories of Relativty, Quantum theory, and Chaos theory didn't throw away Newtonian theory; they generalized it and derived it. E.T. Bell notes the Hilbert problem solved by Dehn which generalizes the Egyptian solution to the volume of the truncated pyramid. E.T. Bell stresses these phenomenon of abstraction and generalization throughout the history of mathematics.
Mathematics is arches within arches. It is a cathedral of the mind alright. I feel like I've been through a cathedral when I read E.T. Bell's "The Development of Mathematics." E.T. Bell shows the unity and extent of mathematics of all mathematics; he also shows the connections between modern mathematics and the great accomplishments of mathematics of as far back as he could get when he wrote this book.

There's been great artists of various arts; but, outside of passing down to future generations new techniques, a given artist creates their art, and the next creates their art(in the blues, they build up on one anothers songs actualy!). But, in mathematics each generation opens up the previous generations mathematics, generalizes and finds new unities. Mathematics is by far now the deepest human construct. It's possiblities are infinit(as proved by Kurt Godel; Godel's theormes say an inconsistent finite set of axioms can prove an infinity of truths; a consistent set of finite axioms cannot prove an infinity of truths; mathematicians pick the second possibility; hence their activity will always continue).

Jacob Bronowski essentialy argues that humanity is the science and technologicaly dependent species. We came from ignorance. Mathematics is the ultimate expression of our effort to comprehend the universe. E.T. Bell shows this development from as early times as he could when he wrote it. He shows the connections between all the great accomplishments of the past and all the latest mathematics. It's kindof remarkable how a study of mathematics shows the main outlines of human history!


Mathematical quotes

"If you do not rest on the good foundation of nature, you will labour with little honor and less profit." - Leonardo Da Vinci

 "The man who discredits the supreme certainty of mathematics is feeding on confusion, and can never silence the contradictions of sophistical sciences, which lead to eternal quackery" - Leonardo Da Vinci"

The known is finite, the unknown infinit; Intellectually we stand on an islet in the midst of an illimitable ocean of inexplicability. Our business in every generation is to reclaim a little more land." - T. H. Huxley"

If a faithfull account was rendered of man's ideas of divinity, he would be obliged to acknowledge, that for the most part the word "gods" has been used to express the concealed, remote, unknown causes of the effects he witnesses; that he applies this term when the spring of the natural, the source of known causes, ceases to be visible: as soon as he loses the thread of these causes, or as soon as his mind can no longer follow the chain, he solves the difficulty, terminates his research, by ascribing it to his gods . . . When, therefore, he ascribes to his gods the production of some phenomenon . . . does he, in fact, do anything more than substitute for the darkness of his own mind, a sound to which he has been accustomed to listen with reverential awe?" - Paul Heinrich Dietrich, Baron von Holbach, Systeme de la Nature, London, 1770

 "The ancients who wished to illustrate illustrious virtue throughout the Kingdom first ordered well their own states. Wishing to order well their states, they first regulated their families. Wishing to regulate their families, they first cultivated their persons. Wishing to cultivate their persons, they first rectified their hearts. Wishing to rectify their hearts, they first sought to be sincere in their thoughts. Wishing to be sincere in their thoughts, they first extended to the utmost their knowledge. Such extension of knowledge lay in the investigation of things." - Confusious

 "Let me not seem to have lived in vain . . . let me not seem to have lived in vain." - Tycho Brahe

 "and still it moves" - Galileo

 "Philosophy(nature) is written in that great book which ever lies before our eyes - I mean the universe - but we cannot understand it if we do not first learn the language and grasp the symbols in which it is written. The book is written in the mathematical language, and the symbols are triangles, circles, and other geometric figures, without whose help it is impossible to comprehend a single word of it; without which one wanders in vain through a dark labyrinth." - Galileo

 "All men are mortal
Socrates is Mortal; therefore,
Socrates must die" - Plato

 "there is no royal road to geometry" - Euclid

"This, therefore, is mathematics: she reminds you of the invisible form of the soul; she gives life to her own discoveries; she awakens the mind and purifies the intellect; she brings light to our intrinsic ideas; she obolishes oblivion and ignorance which are ours by birth."  Proclus

"- . . . someone who had begun to learn geometry from Euclid, when he had learned the first theorem, asked Euclid "What shall I get out of what he learns?" Euclid called his slave and said "Give him threepence since he must make gain out of what he learns." Strabasus, about Euclid

"I do not know what I appear to the world; but to myself, i seem to have been only like a boy playing on the seashore ,and diverting myself in now and then finding a smoother pebble or a prettier shell than ordinary, whilst the great ocean of truth lay all undiscovered before me." - Isaac Newton

"If i have seen a little farther than others, it is because i have stood on the shoulders of giants." - Isaac Newton

"The time will come when diligent research over long periods will bring to light things which now lie hidden. A single lifetime, even though entirely devoted to the sky, would not be enough for the investigation of so vast a subject . . . And so this knowledge will be unfolded only through long successive ages. There will come a time when our descendents will be amazed that we did not know things that are so plain to them . . . many discoveries are reserved for ages still to come, when memory of us will have been effaced. Our universe is a sorry little affair unless it has in it something for every age to investigate . . . Nature does not reveal her mysteries once and for all." - Seneca, Natural Questions, Book 7, first century A.D.

Mathematics is not a book confined within a cover and bound between brazen clasps, whose contents it needs only patients to ransack; it is not a mine, whose treasures may take long to reduce into possession, but which fill on a limited number of reeins(not to sure about this word in my quote) and lodes; it is not a soil, whose fertility can be exhausted by the yield of successive harvests; it is not a continent or an ocean, whose area can be mapped out and its contour defined; it is as limitless as that space which it finds too narrow for its aspirations; its possibilities are as infinit as the worlds which are forever crowding in and multiplying upon the astronomical gaze; it is as incapable of being restricted within assigned boundaries or being reduced to definitions of permanent validity, as the consciousness of life," - James Sylvester

"Logic can be patient, for it is eternal." - Oliver Heaviside

"Logic is invincible because in order to combat logic it is necessary to use logic." - Pierre Boutroux.

"The science of pure mathematics in its modern development, may claim to be the most original creation of the human spirit," - A. N. Whitehead

"I will not go so far as to say that to construct a history of thought without profound study of the mathematical ideas of successive epochs is like omitting hamlet from the play which is named after him. That would be claiming too much. But it is certainly analogous to cutting out the part of Ophelia. This simile is singularly exact. For Ophelia is quite essential to the play, she is very charming, and a little mad. Let us grant that the pursuit of mathematics is a devine madness of the human spirit, a refuge from the goading urgency of contingent happenings." - A.N. Whitehead

"Mathematics, rightly viewed, possesses not only truth, but supreme beauty - a beauty cold and austere, like that of sculpture, without appeal to any part of our weaker nature, without the gorgeous trappings of painting or music, yet sublimely pure, and capable of a stern perfection such as only the greatest art can show," - Bertrand Russel

"Proof is the idol which the mathematician tortures himself." - Sir Arthur Eddington

"We have found that where science has progressed the farthest, the mind has but regained from nature that which the mind has put into nature. We have found a strange footprint on the shores of the unknown. We have devised profound theories, one after another, to account for its origin. At last we have succeeded in reconstructing the creature that made the footprint. and Lo! it is our own!" - Sir Arthur Eddington

"the question of the foundations and the ultimate meaning of mathematics remains open; we do not know in what direction it will find its final solution or even whether a final objective answer can be expected at all. "Mathematizing" may well be a creative activity of man, like language or music, of primary originality, whose historical decisions defy complete objective rationalization." - Herman Weyl

"These people are all anxious that we shall behave well, and yet that we shall not question how we behave." - Jacob Bronowski

"If you want to think of the goal of the human race, there it is. To learn about the universe and ourselves." - I.I. Rabi

"Our job in physics . . . is to understand a great many complicated phenomenon in a unified way." - Steven Weinberg

"Whatever may be one's opinion as to the simplicity of either the laws or the material structures of Nature, there can be no question that the possessors of such conviction have a real advantage in the race for physical discovery. Doubtless, there are many simple connections still to be discovered, and he who has a strong conviction of the existence of these simple connections is much more likely to find them than he who is not at all sure that they are there." - Percy Bridgeman

"the knowledge at which geometry aims is knowledge of the eternal, and not of aught perishing and transient" - Plato

"Since the earliest times, all critical revisions of the principles of mathematics as a whole, or any branch of it, have almost invariably followed periods of uncertainty, where contradictions did appear and had to be resolved . . . . there are now twenty-five centuries during which the mathematians have had the practice of correcting their errors and thereby seeing their science enriched, not impoverished; this gives them the right to view the future with serenity." - Bourbaki

space exploration is the moral equivalent of war - William James

"there is probably no other science which presents such different appearances to one who cultivates it and one who does not, as mathematics. To[the later] it is ancient, venerable, and complete; a body of dry, irrafutable, unambiguous reasoning. To the mathematician, on the other hand, his science is yet in the purple bloom of vigorous youth." - C.H. Chapman

"Knowing others is intelligence;
knowing yourself is true wisdom.
Mastering others is strength;
mastering yourself is true power."
— Lao Tzu

"We are all agreed," said Bohr, "that your theory is crazy. The question which divides us is whether it is crazy enough to have a chance to be correct. My own feeling is that it is not crazy enough." - Neils Bohr

"You have written this hugh book on the system of the world without once mentioning the author of the universe. Sire, Laplace retorted, I had no need of that hypothesis." - exchange between Napoleon Bonaparte and Laplace

"Newton was a most fortunate man because there is just one universe and Newton had discovered its laws." - Laplace

"What is laid down, ordered, factual, is never enough to embrace the whole truth: life always spills over the rim of every cup." - Boris Pasternak

"What is now proved was once only imagin'd." - William Blake

"The Earch is the cradle of mankind, but one cannot stay in the cradle forever." - Konstantin Tsiolkovsky

"Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic." - Arthur C. Clarke

"Man is the Measure of all things." - Protagoras

"That's one small step for a man, one giant leap for mankind" - Neil Armstrong

"Failure Is Not an Option" - Gene Kranz

"the contemplation of this world beckoned like a liberation" - Albert Einstein

"In most sciences one generation tears down what another has built, and what one has established another undoes. In mathematics alone each generation adds a new story to the old structure." - Hermann Hankel

"there is no truth, if there were it could not be comprehended-and if comprehended, it could not be communicated" - character in a Plato dialog

"to create a healthy philosophy you should renounce metaphysics but be a good mathematician" - Bertrand Russel

"We shall not cease from exploration, and the end of all our exploring will be to arrive where we started and know the place for the first time." - T.S. Eliot

"if you understand something today, it must already be obsolete'.". - anonymus

"If quantum mechanics hasn't profoundly shocked you, you haven't understood it yet." - Niels Bohr

"Mathematicians must keep their heads in the clouds and their feet on the ground." - Morris Kline

"Should anyone find it singular that we have been able to found a Course of Mathematics on the sole concept of a system of coordinates, he may be reminded that it is preciselly these systems which characterize the phases and stages of science. Without the invention of rectangular coordinates, algebra might still be where Diophantus and his commentators left it, and we should lack both the infinitesimal calculus and analytic mechanics. Without the introduction of spherical coordinates, celestial mechanics would be absolutely impossible; and without elliptic coordinates, illustrious mathematicians would have been unable to solve several important problems of this theory . . . . Subsequently the reign of general curvilinear coordinates supervened, and these alone are capable of attacking the new problems[of mathematical physics] in all their generality. Yes, this definitive epoch will arrive, but tardily: those who first recognized these new implements will have ceased to exist and will be completely forgotten-unless some archaeological mathematician revives their names. Well, what of it, provided science has advanced?" - G. Lame(french)

"1:9 The thing that hath been, it is that which shall be; and that which is done is that which shall be done: and there is no new thing under the sun." - Bible's Ecclesiastes(not that I support this view!)

"cosmologists are often wrong but never in dought" - common saying

"in mathematics you don't understand things, you just get used to them" - John Von Neuman

"A new scientific truth does not triumph by convincing its opponents and making them see the light, but rather because its opponents eventually die, and a new generation grows up that is familiar with it." - Max Planck

"It is essential that such a treatise should be rid of everything superfluous(for this is an obstacle to the aquisition of knowledge); it should select everything that embraces the subject and bring it to a point(for this is of supreme service to science); it must have great regard at once to clearness and conciseness(for their opposites trouble our understanding); it must aim at the embracing of theorems in general terms(for the piecemeal division of instruction into the more partial makes knowledge difficult to grasp)." - Geminus through Proclus

"The taste for the abstract sciences in general and, above all, for the mysteries of numbers, is very rare; this is not surprising, since the charms of this sublime science in all their beauty reveal themselves only to those who have the courage to fathom them." - Carl Frederich Gauss

"Euclid alone . . . has looked on Beauty bare." - Ena St Vincent Millay

"Socrates. Very good; let us begin then, Protarchus, by asking a question . . . Protarchus. What question? . . . Socrates. Whether all this which they call the universe is left to the guidance of unreason and chance medley, or, on the contrary, as our fathers have declared, ordered and governed by a marvellous intelligence and wisdom . . . Protarchus. Wide asunder are the two assertions, illustrious Socrates, for that which you are just now saying to me appears blasphemy, but the other assertion, that mind orders all things, is worthy of the aspect of the world . . . " - Plato: Philebus

Flashgordon's "Gospel of Truth"

Flashgordon's "Gospel of Truth"

Recently, archaeologists have unearthed a "Nebra Sky disk" dated to 1600B.C. It was unearthed in contemporary Germany around 1999A.D. It has the stars, sun, and moon. It also has the Pleides, two equal gold leafs on either side a boat at the bottom. The two gold leaflets at the edges may measure out degrees geometrically without numbers. The boat is rather interesting as is the pleides representation. The Pleides and the boat were often used in Egyptian mythology. Many Egyptian temples had sunboats in them, actually. In Egyptian mythology, the sunboats were to take the Pharohs or the Egyptian sungods Ra and Osirus to heaven and hell and back.

This is actually a picture of Ra in a solar barge. The Egyptians actually symbolically put boats in all their temples as sunboats for the Pharoh to be taken to heaven.

It's interesting that the sun takes center stage in Egyptian mythology and finds its way to Europe. The English Stonehenge(there's many stonehenges around Ireland as well and throughout Europe actually) is also proof that ancient peoples everywhere worshipped the Sun, and mapped out the seasons. Stonehenge maps out the sun through the twelve months of the year. Mankind whether through cultureal contact or the fact that all cultures growing up from ignorance to knowledge of the heavens would naturally mythologize and worship the sun, the moon, and the stars. But, today's cultures seem to be ignorant or often shocked that their latest religions may take from and evolve from those sungod worshipping peoples - the Egyptians and people before them.
The main cultures after the cave painters of tens of thousands of years ago were generally the Mesopotamians, the Egyptians, and then the Greeks and Romans(the Greeks and Romans are distinct; but, they also had much contact throughout their ancient times; there's Greek pathenon temples on the Italian peninsula Sicily, the boot island of the Italian peninsula). Just to speed through history and hint at things to come. The word Easter comes from Ishtar, lover of Bablonian sungod Tammuz, who was given "Sheppard" and "Lamb of God" symbolism thousands years before "Jesus Christ." Herodotus replaces Osirus in his writings as Dionysus; hence, he considers the two sungods to be the same. The name Dionysus is translated as "God of Nysa"(Herodotus, Histories, 3-97 has Herodotus mentioning Nysa, "The Ethiopians who dwell about sacred Nysa and hold the festivals in honour of Dionysus"), and city in modern Turkey(in ancient times, Bablon). Excavations of Nysa have uncovered temples of the Mithras god. This establishes links between Dionysus and Mithras. And, we've already established link between Dionysus and Osirus. Everyone knows that the Vatican Saint Peters is built on top of an old Mithras temple; can we establish links between all these ancient sungods, Osius, mithras, Dionysus, and . . . Jesus Christ? Before then, let me point out a few things.
The fact that the six days of creation of the book of Genesis follows closely the Epic of Gilgamesh and the flood story is also clearly a redo of that more ancient story is well known and well established. But, I've found that the Egyptian influence on the Torah is perhaps underrated. Actualy this part is farely well known also. It seems that the Hymn to Akhenaten is reproduced in the Psalm 104. The Hymn to Akhenaten is about sunworshipping. Well, I've found that this Hymn to Akhenaten is more integrated in the Torah(the first five books of the Old Testament) than just this little curiosity.

Some of the influences of the religion of Akhenaton are how Yahweh created the languages, the seasons, and how Yahweh begat King Soloman. See Andrew Benson's "The Origins of Christianity and the Bible" for the Hymn of Aton equivalents.

What's interesting about Akhenaton Aton creating the seasons is this is in Genesis; for instance, 1:14 And God said, Let there be lights in the firmament of

the heaven to divide the day from the night;" and let them be for

signs, and for seasons, and for days, and years: " Yes, God is being an astrologer here.
If you read "Christ in Egypt" by a Murdock(she usually likes to go by the name of Acharya S), you'll see that repeating all the evidence of that book would make this "Gospel of Truth" over five hundred pages long. This would defeat the my purpose here; to give as short as possible some of the most clear evidence of where all this mythology/god(s) stuff comes from. I'm only going to give like one or two interesting evidences from her book here. One is a Leiden Hymn to Amun.
"All Gods are three
Amun, Re, Ptah they have no equal.
His name is hidden as Amun,
He is Re in the face,
and his body is Ptah."
This Hymn is the theology of the trinity thousands of years before Christianity.
Josephus(who we'll see more of later) mentions that the twelve tribes of Israel are just the twelve constellations of the zodiac. Josephus is refereing to Genesis 49. Reference is Josephus "Antiquities of the Jews" book 3 chapter 7 section 7(practically the very last paragraph of chapter 7 as well).
-Rueben = aquarius because of "the beginning of my strength . . . unstable as water."

-Simen and Levi = Gemini because of the twins of Gemini

-Judah = Leo beause of the "lions welp"

-Zebulun = libra because of "who shall be far an haven of ships; or the ship sign, ark"

-Issachar = Taurus because of "strong ass, workhorse"

-Dan = Scorpio because it is between sagitarrious and capricornious

-Gad = Pisces because Gad is the reversal of dag, a fish god

-Asher = Virgo because of "rich food or fat bread"

-Naphtali = Capricornus because he's a "hind let loose, the goat

-Joseph = Safittarious because he was fiercely attacked by archers

-Benjamoin = Aries becuase "the ravenous wolf who divides the spoils"
I've shown that the Hebrews clearly took from surrounding peoples as all cultures did back then. One major thing the Hebrews took from the surrounding cultures was the alphabetical style of language started from the Phoenicians(there's some indications the Phoenicians might have originaly come from Minoa Crete). The Phoenicians might have been the sea peoples. In archaeology of this time period, this is still a bit of a mystery. At the time, there was Minoa Crete and the city of Troy for instance. After the sea peoples, these cultures were no more. The european cultures went into a dark ages and so did just about everyone else except the Egyptians. They were the only culture to survive these sea peoples. The Hittites in contemporary Turkey whom the Egyptians were in constant competition with were wiped out. This is all like 1200 B.C. Out of the social vacuum created by the sea peoples came the Greeks and the Hebrews. Both these cultures picked up on the new alphabetical style language created according to all ancient sources from the Phoenicians. But for the most part, these two cultures evolved in radically different ways. The Greeks created "Euclid's Elements"; the Hebrews created the Torah and associated writings. This doesn't mean the Greeks were totally rational as we'll see.
Archaeologists discovered a Merneptah Stele around 1896. It is the first historical mention of Israelites. So, we know they had to be around before then. But there, we run into problems. In fact, the archaeological problems become biblical problems because the Judahites writing in 600B.C. timeframe gave clues of a great exodus from Egypt; and that according to them was where Israelites came from. The archaeology presents problems for the Judahite account because back then, greater than 1200 B.C, the Egyptians were at the height of their powers. This was the time the Egyptians built Karnak and Abu Simbel. Archaeologists find that during this great building time, they had built great fortress walls indicating the boundaries of their country. There, they had guards stationed, patrolling up and down these barriers. They've found tablets recording everything and everybody that went in and out of these gates. And well, there's no mention of a great exodus, a hundred thousand slaves of anybody Jew or otherwise happening sometime before 1200B.C. There was the Hyksos around 1500 when some Canaanites actually conquered Egypt for a period. The Egyptians eventually drove them out and into the Levant/Canaan/Israel. One could argue that this was what the Judahites of ~600B.C. meant. But, I'll leave it at that.

The Israelites mentioned by the Merneptah Stele grew into a rather sophisticated and rich nation. Well, let's understand that there was a fertile lower ground northern land where the Israel state was, and a higher land southern land where Judahites lived. There was certainly some connection between the two, as there probably was between the Canaanites and the Israelites. But, there was distinctions to be made. There's great marble column ruins build by the Omrides(whom the later Judahites demonized in their writings). Point is the northern Israelites were rich and sophisticated enough to create great cities that can be seen today. The southern highlands were dry and barelly habitable. Back in these ancient times, slave labor was like gold and oil is today. Nation-States fight over them. Back then, Nation-States went to war to take the skilled slave labor of other countries to help build their great temples. This is essentially what happened to the northern Israelites. These were moderate willing to trade with one another surrounding cultures and even take in each other gods. The Assyrians conquered and absorbed the northern state of Israel around 740B.C. To stress that the Israelites and the Judahites were a bit more distinct than most would think, there's 2kings14:9, the Israelite king calls the Judahite king a thistle who goes to Lebanon for help because they can't take care of themselves. Here we also see that the Israelites were generaly strong and rich, while the Judahites were weak and poor. When the Assyrians came to conquer the Israelites for their skilled labor, they didn't lift a finger to conquer the southern highlands. They didn't have any slave labor worth picking up.

The biblical literature was clearly written by the Judahites. In Genesis 49:8-10, it is said that Judah is to be the center of the world really; it says the skeptre shall never depart Judah. Why would anywhere in the universe be the center of the universe? The fact that the Bible essentially makes Judah of all places the center of the universe is a dead giveaway that the Torah and associated writings were written in Judah around the time of King Josiah around 640 to 600 B.C. In fact In 2Kings 22:8-23:24, High Priest Hilkiah miraculously finds the torah in his back room(kind of convenient, ha!?). Lets get back to the whole astrotheology theme. What astrotheology can be found in the Old Testament?

We've already indicated some above from Josephus about the twelve tribes of Israel being the twelve constellations. There's quite a lot. I'm going to only highlight(kind of the purpose of this gospel of truth actually!). In Dueteronomy 4:19, we have "the sun, the moon, and the stars and all the hosts of heaven." This is much quoted; but, reading around it, we find King Josiah actually telling the Jews to stop worshipping the sun and stars(and Asherahs; which turns out to be God's wife; god has a wife; but King Josiah and those making up the Old testament only want a male god; so they're going around this time destroying all the Asherahs). Going back in time, we have Amos one of the very earliest Israelite prophets/writers. In Amos 5:8 Seek him that maketh the seven stars and Orion, and turneth the shadow of death into the morning, and maketh the day dark with night: that calleth for the waters of the sea, and poureth them out upon the face of the earth: The LORD is his name" Here we see that the God(s) are just the sun, the moon, the stars, and the constellations! Oh yes, the Pleides shows up again in Hebrew mythology just like in Egyptian and the Nebra sky disk! In fact, in Genesis 1:14, we have it that the stars are created for astrological purposes(also see Psalm 104:19). Astrology is astronomy for the purpose of healing the sick; it's also often taken in by the Kings and Priests to tax the population and 'rule by divine rite.' Here we're beginning to see that the Old Testament is a astrology text. The constellations and the Pleides turn out to be gods again in Job 9:9. Also, in Job 38:31-33 we see God as controlling the constellations. Why would god control some artificial pattern(the constellations)? That's right, it's humans making up gods and making them for astrological purposes to rule by divine right. Isaiah 47:13 explicitly mentions astrology, 47:13 Thou art wearied in the multitude of thy counsels. Let now the astrologers, the stargazers, the monthly prognosticators, stand up, and save thee from these things that shall come upon thee. There's more that can be said for astrology in the bible, but I think I've made my point!

The Judahites took a lot more from the surrounding cultures than just astrology(hence proof the astrotheological nature and origin of any cultures gods). For instance, there's the famous ten commandments Deut chapter 5 for instance. These have always been known as analogous to Code of Hammerabi from the Babylonians and the Egyptian book of the dead chapter 125. What I'd like to note about the ten commandments is that they say things like never take the lords name in vain, and don't stop worshipping me. Talk about a Jealous god. This is the language of every dictator and gangster in history! In fact, I'd go so far as to equate religion, with cults, and cults with gangsters. Nowhere in the bible old or new testament will you find, "question everything including what I say." It's always, believe in everything I say or else I'll kill you and your mother. Faith is a convenient tool for gangsters and dictators/kings. In fact, in 1Samuel chapter 8:10-22, Samuel offers democracy, but the people and ultimately God shouts him down.

One could have lots more fun with scripture about the nature of gods back then. In Genesis 31:30 is one of my favorites. The Patriarches are stealing the gods and hiding them from one another, "yet wherefore hast thou stolen my gods?" In Exodus, we find that mana from heaven is just hallucinogenic mushrooms, "Exodus 16:14 . . . it came by night after dew had settled in the soil . . . and a little round thing appeared". God hardens the heart of the Egyptian Pharoh so he can make a fool of him; he hardens lots of hearts so that some Jews can run them through. "God hardens hearts Exodus 4:2-1, 7:4-5, Deut 2:30; this one, God hardens some tribeman's heart so that Moses has to strike him down. He does it again at Joshua 11:20. The exodus passages has God hardening the heart of the Egyptian Pharoh."

I've had plenty of fun blasting the Hebrew mythologizing for now. I'd like to stress Deut chapter 4 again. Here we have King Josiah ordering his fellow jews from patterning their gods after the stars. Hence, the Jews were trying to learn the universe. Point is that the anti-science Jewish religion is due to some king with a literary weapon(literacy and the new Phoenician alphabetical language) making a religion to rule by divine right. It's not all the Jews. The word all is the problem. Much of the human problems has been people going to war because some subset of a given culture stirs up trouble. Then, the other culture just decides all of the other culture must be destroyed. Part of Humanities problem is refusing to question their own beliefs; this is part of why I right this "Gospel of Truth". The other problem is gross generalisations poor questioning of assumptions and drawing idealisations to far. I've seen some modern Israelites(really jews; the Israel state and people were taken in by the Assyrians; modern day Iraqis and Iranians!) who understand this religious problem of "we're the chosen ones; all else get to go to hell". But, they go back and forth, so I also don't mean to let modern Jews off the hook either. The fact that the Judahites made a 'chosen ones' religion(the old testament) is what led to further Jewish problems of being Exhiled, and then the Messianic frenzy that led to the Romans destroying the Jews tempel(really herodian) around 66 and 125 A.D. But this is all getting ahead of the story. Mankinds struggle between rational mathematical science and poetic mythology continued with the greeks.

The Greeks were coming out of their dark ages around the time the Jews were being exiled to Babylon again. Thales, Pythagoras first went to Egypt and Babylon to learn all the knowledge they could. They took everything, the mathematics and the mythology. At least they took the mathematics. But, they also took the mythology. The Greeks like the Hebrews grew up on the Phoenician alphabetical style language. They used the same symbols they used for their natural language for their representation of numbers. They'd then use the numbers for their natural language in their mixing of mathematics and Egyptian/Babylonian mythology. This is called gematria and later with the mixing of Greek or Hellenistic religion with Jewish old testament 'midrashing.' Midrashing is a kind of linguistic analogy. The point is that the Plato gematria would mix with the midrashing of the old testament to make the New testament. For instance, the logos, or the word of God that Jesus Christ is called in the Gospel of John goes back to Plato.

Actually, I have two remarkable quotes in relation to kings ruling by divine right and where the Pythagoreans got their religion from. "Diodorus of Sicily says the Pythagoreans got their religious ideas from the Egyptians(book one, 98).

Diodorus of Sicily is interesting here because he’s b.c. time and notes that hell is made up to keep people inline(book 1.2.2 -”For if it be true that the myths which are related about Hades, in spite of the fact that their subject-matter is fictitious, contribute greatly to fostering piety and justice among men,”)."
Getting back to Plato. The middle 1900s were a great time for biblical archaeology. They found the dead sea scrolls(1946) and the Nag Hammadi library(1945). The Nag Hammadi library is a collection of Gnostic gospels and epistles. The suggetion is that after Emperor Constantine made Christianity the official religion of the Roman empire, they went on a book burning crusade. Some Gnostics apparently got smart and stuck their scrolls in jars and ditched them in the Egyptian sands. Amongs the catch was found . . . Plato's Republic! What in the world was Plato's Republic doing amongst Gnostic christian scrolls? Midrashing. They were midrashing the old testament to fit Platonic philsophy - the dominant philosophy in various forms since Hellenistic times(Alexander the Great spreading Greek culture is called "Hellenism"). We're getting ahead of the story here and there; well, lets get to some evidences for Platonism and Plato's Republic in the New Testament.
"Plato’s hell is Tartarus(Plato, Phaedo 113e). Curiously, the writer of 2Peter says tartarus at 2:4.

More correlations between Plato and the New Testament are . . .

-“keeping the soul unspotted”(Plato Republic Book 10, 621B-C also found in

Epistle of James 1:27

-”believe and you will be saved”(Plato Republic, book 10, 621B-C also found in Luke 8:12)

-”Lake of fire”(Plato, Phaedo, 113A also found in Revelation 20:10)

-”all things work together for the best”(Plato Republic Book 10, 613A and Romans 8:28

I think having that many can’t be an accident; but, one last Plato/New testament tidbit is most shocking of all! "the just man will have to endure the lash, the rack, chains, the branding-iron in his eyes, and finally, after every extremity of suffering, he will be crucified" (Plato Republic II. 361D-362A)
I'd like to stress Plato's "believe and you will be saved" a bit more. In 1931, Kurt Godel became one of the great logicians(deductive logic) by publishing his incompleteness/inconsistency proofs. In Euclid's "Elements", the deductive process is started by means of assuming certain self-evident statements. Euclid has ten. Every ruler from Hammerabi to King Josiah has put up a list of fundamental rules to live by; in the old testament, these are the ten commandments. I've already covered this a bit. My point is that Kurt Godel proves that a finite set of axioms cannot prove an infinity of truths. Of if they can, they must be inconsistent. Euclid's axioms are consistent; the ten commandments and most supernatural religious commandments are made to be inconsistent - such as "believe and you will be saved." Well, this statement gets generalised to "believe and you will believe" through the ages. Another vague twisty statement to shut up further questioning and thought is Exodus 3:14 where Moses asks God for his name, and God says "I am that I am." God is a vague word. It is an inconsistent statement that can prove everything without explaining anything. God is the algebraic X standing for "I dont know", and "don't bother me with questions I can't answer" , and "I don't want to know." There's some more curious Plato Republic quotes that relates to mythology versus mathematical science.
A Socrates passage through Plato is Republic, Book 2, 380A-B. "Socrates through Plato apparently argued that the god passages in Homer sound suspiciously made up!(Plato Republic, Book 2, 377D-E, 378A.) Socrates then further argued that to make the passages legit, one should allegorize." What we have here is questions one whether to historicise or allegorize the mythological ideas of religion. Their fighting on the reality of the poetry/mythology process. Both mythology and mathematics are analogies; one is consistent and constructive, the other is not. The Greeks from Socrates to Plato are getting confused on this issue! I've found a curious reference to Eratosthenes writing some gospel out of the zodiacal constellations. Eratosthenes was writing around 200B.C. He's more famous for having the logical insight to calculate the circumference of the earth using vertical sticks. In Thomas Heath's "History of Greek Mathematics:Vol 2" about Eratosthenes, Mr Heath notes in passing that Eratosthenes wrote some story about the twelve constellations of the zodiac. I've tried to look around. All I can find is commentary that others have seen this. They further note that Eratosthenes argued that one should not confuse the such myth making for real science. That these mythological stories should be used only for entertainment purposes. Apparently, the vast majority turned a deaf ear.
Herodotus reveals that the Egyptians had personified the twelve constellations long before them, Herodotus 2:43(histories) says the Egyptians personified the twelve constellations, “to portion out its course into twelve parts. They obtained this knowledge from the stars. Herodotus further states that the Egyptians personified the twelve constellations. A D.M. Murdock, who otherwise goes by the name of Acharya S, shows that the whole mythology of Jesus Christ goes back thousands of years before the supposed life of Jesus Christ in her "Christ in Egypt." I cannot repeat every shred of evidence she gathers in there. She digs out many books of the dead, and many sarcoficase papyra. The point is that religion back then is astrotheology and so is Christianity. The twelve followers correspond to the twelve constellations of the zodiac, the virgin birth and everything else is all Egyptian. But, there is much more intersting things to say about Jesus Christ and the Christian religion of course!
Alexander the Great conquered the Mediterraenean and spread Greek culture. There's ancient Greek coins of his time showing him with rams horns. Why would he have rams horns? This part is pretty hard to believe. Scholars will tell you that Hipparchus around 100A.D was the first to learn of the precession of the equinoxes. But, the mythology of the period suggests that maybe the Babylonians at least knew of them far earlier. The astrologers know the precession of the equinoxes well. They know of how the constellation of the equinoxes changes over 2000+ years. It has gone from Taurus the bull, the Aries the Ram, to Pisces the fish. We've seen many times now mention of the constellation of the bull, not much of the ram or the fish. But, now we have this coin of Alexander the Great with rams horns. We also know that the Egyptians used to go to a temple celebrating Aries the Ram; it's said that Alexander had these coins stamped to appease the Egyptians. Also, the Jews of this time had a tradition of blowing the rams horn. The mythology is that Moses is the symbolic figure that turns the ages from age of Taurus the Bull to Aries the age of the Ram. And then, Jesus Christ is suppose to do the passover from the age of the Ram to the Age of Pisces, or the fish. This is why Jesus Christ is associated with fish. You can argue Hipparchus all you want, the mythology artwork through the ages fits the patten of the precession of the equinoxes. You would think that everyone around the Mediterraenean would be waiting for the end of the age of Aries and the new beginning. In fact, we can find some.

Coin of Alexander the Great with Rams horns
One is a passage from a Julian calendar dated 9 B.C. . .

"The Providence which rules over all has filled this man with such gifts for the salvation of the world as designated him as savior for us and for the coming generations; of wars he will make an end, and establish all things worthily. By his appearing are the hopes of our forefathers fulfilled; not only has he surpassed the good deeds of earlier times, but it is impossible that one greater than he can ever appear. The birthday of God has brought to the world glad tidings that are bound up in him. From his birthday a new era begins."

Now for the Virgil passage from his "Eclogue 4",

"Come are those last days that the Sybil sang: The ages' might march begins anew. Now comes the virgin, Saturn reigns again: now from high heaven descends a wondrous race. Thou on the newborn babe-who first shall end . . . That age of iron, bid a golden dawn . . . Upon the broud world-chaste Lucina, smile: Now thy Apollo reigns."

This passage would be dated around 37 B.C. I've gotten some feedback that this might be an interpolation from Emperor Constantine. See Pagans and Christians by Robin Fox Lane. I havn't confirmed it. It just seems odd that Emperor Constantine would interpolate the works of Virgil to disprove his christian religion. I may also be tired of reading and investigating all this stuff!
Even the Jews apparently were on some Messianic end of the world hopes and dreams. There's been discovered a "Revelation of Gabriel" tablet that speaks of a Simon who was resurrected after three days. The truth is there were many people around the first century B.C. waiting for the end of the world.
A main guy, perhaps the main guy, to start midrashing the old testament and combine with Greek philosophy is Philo, who lived before, during and after the supposed life of Jesus Christ; but, he never mentions a Jesus Christ in his works! Philo is very into Plato's 'logos'. He has even more interesting history that perhaps evolves into more significance for the beginnings of Christianity. Philo was rediculously rich. He controlled the trade from Mesopotamia and hence from India and China into the city of Alexandria. That should give you some idea of how rich this guy was. The guy could practically pay people to believe in whatever he wanted the ignorant masses to believe. I don't know if he used his money quite like that; but, Philo happened to have a Nephew - a Tiberius Alexander.
Tiberius Alexander was second in command with Titus who was second in command to his Roman Emperor father Vespasian. Tiberius Alexander hated a James the Just. He was said to have gone from pure Judaism to some radical religion. Tiberius Alexander along with Titus destroyed Jerusalem around 66 A.D. Also, Tiberius Alexander used his uncles money to pay Vespasians way into the Emperor seat of the Roman empire. All else is certainly hard to confirm. Some suspect that Tiberius may have written proto-gospel of Mark.
Another nephew of Philo was a Marcus Alexander became husband to a Berenice, a Herodian(half Jewish princess). Berenice makes some appearences in the New Testament(Acts 25:23). Just one of the curious appearances of Herodians in the New Testament. There's another curious character in the destruction of Jerusalem around 66 A.D. - Flavius Jospehus.
Between the sungod mythology and the end of the wold suggestions due to the precession of the equinoxes suggested the end of the world is coming; and, the "Revelation of Gabriel" tablet also proves that the Jews took to messianisms back then. However the history of Philo's influence on gospel making and the paying Vespasians way to be the Roman emperor, another character takes center stage after Philo - Josephus, specifically, Flavius Josephus. Josephus was a Jew. Flavius is an official imperial roman name. How does a jew get an offiicial imperial name? Josephus was a Jewish general fighting the romans. According to his testamony, he decided to turn roman. One day, the Roman legions were coming, him and some of his fellow officers remaining hid in a cave. They drew straws to see who was going to cut the others throats. Fortunatelly for Josephus anyways, he got the right straw. He slit their throats and surrendered to the Roman emperor Titus. Titus was Roman emperor Vespasian's son and second in command at the time. Josephus apparently told Titus and Vespasian about the Jewish prophesy in Numbers 24 that a messiah will save them and destroy their enemies. Josephus became the Roman's spokesperson to try to get the messianic Jews to not be messianic and pay their taxes like every other culture the Romans had conquered and absorbed. Josephus also told them everything about the Jews. Why did he do this?
Apparently, Flavius Josephus felt that the messianic strain of Jews brought the Roman legions down on the Jews; so, the messianic strain had to be taken out. But, could Josephus have been more than even that? Could he have acted as a spy? Getting a little ahead of the story, Robert Eisenman in his "James Brother of Jesus" shows analogies between the works of Josephus and the Pauline epistles and much other literature, some clementine recognitions and much else besides. What he decodes out it all is that whether there was a Jesus Christ or not, the Jesus Christ of the Gospels is just a hellenistic sungod overwright for a "James the Just." In the Gospel of Mark, James is the less in chapter 15. I'm not going to get into the thousand pages of Mr Eisenman's work - just give a few things here and there. I for one find it weird that Josephus knows so much of the happenings between Paul and James the Just. One of the things Eisenman decodes is that Paul killed James the Just. This is just me; but, with Jospehus's photographic memory(as described by Mr Eisenman), of the events, I've often suspected that Josephus is Paul! I've found one almost undeniable correspondence between the life story of Josephus and Paul,
"Josephus: Shipwrecked on voyage to Rome

"But when I was in the twenty-sixth year of my age, it happened that I took a voyage to Rome ... At the time when Felix was procurator of Judea there were certain priests of my acquaintance ... whom on a small and trifling occasion he had put into bonds, and sent to Rome to plead their cause before Caesar ...

Accordingly I came to Rome, though it were through a great number of hazards by sea; for as ourship was drowned in the Adriatic Sea, we that were in it, being about six hundred in number, swam for our lives all the night; when, upon the first appearance of the day, and upon our sight of a ship of Cyrene, I and some others, eighty in all, by God's providence, prevented the rest, and were taken up into the other ship.

And when I had thus escaped, and was come to Dieearchia, which the Italians call Puteoli."

- Josephus, Life,3

St Paul: "Shipwrecked on voyage to Rome"

"Felix, willing to show the Jews a pleasure, left Paul bound." - Acts 24.27.
"They talked between themselves, saying, This man doeth nothing worthy of death or of bonds. - Acts 26.31.

"It was determined that we should sail into Italy ... And entering into a ship of Adramyttium ... we came to Myra ... And there the centurion found a ship of Alexandria sailing into Italy ... they sailed close by Crete. But not long after there arose against it a tempestuous wind ... no small tempest lay on us ... But when the fourteenth night was come, as we were driven up and down in Adria ... And falling into a place where two seas met, they ran the ship aground; and the forepart stuck fast, and remained unmovable, but the hinder part was broken with the violence of the waves.

The centurion ... commanded that they which could swim should cast themselves first into the sea, and get to land. And the rest, some on boards, and some on broken pieces of the ship. And so it came to pass, that they escaped all safe to land. And after three months we departed in a ship of Alexandria ...

And landing at Syracuse ... and came to Rhegium: and after one day the south wind blew, and we came the next day to Puteoli."

Now remember Josephus doesn't like the messianic strain of Jews. James the Just was one of the last leaders of this messianic movement. More curiuos things between Josephus and the New Testament Pauline epistles is a Epiphroditus, a roman emperor secretary. This roman secretary makes an appearence in the New Testament, Philippians 2:25 where Paul says Epiphroditus is an apostle for christianity. Epiphroditus funded the works of Josephus. There's more curious things about this friend of Josephus. Mr Eisenman's "The New Testament Code", shows some remarkable linguistic shorthands for various people in the Josephus circle; that of Timothy for Titus, a Silas as equivalent linguistic form shorthand for a Silvanus(yes, the silas of the Da Vinci Code), a Erastus could correspond to Epaphroditus. References would be acts 19:22, 2Timothy4:20, Romans 16:23. So, all these friends of Josephus appear in this linguistic shorthand except! Josephus! Where does Josephus go in the New Testament? I'd say Paul. Josephus is overwritten as Paul just like James the Just is by Jesus Christ.

I find all the above compelling that Josephus acted as a spy for the Roman empire and killed James the Just. Some try to argue that Josephus wrote the Gospel of Mark. I've never and always knew that the writing styles between Josephus and any of the Gospels(and even the Pauline epistles; Josephus doesn't have to write them; he's being overwritten, coded up, hidden as paul) are totally different. Josephus is a very modern scientific style writer. But, Josephus and his circle were clearly trying to pull something as Josephus has it written in his "War against the Jews", 6.5.4. that Roman emperor Vespasian is the coming messiah! But, the Flavians, Vespasian and Titus, didn't last. They died by natural causes by all accounts. We don't know what happened to Josephus; but, Epiphroditus was apparently killed by the next Roman emperor, Domitian, because he was disappearing and running all over the empire for some strange reason(could Epiphroditus be Paul?). Domitian was shortly assasinated by christians and court officials. Clearly somebody was rich and powerfull enough to enact revenge!  As Robert Eisenman stresses, there were no scientific reporting like we had with Josephus since Josephus's time. It's really hard to trace who wrote or did what after this period. But, there's all kinds of I would say smoking guns no matter how you turn them.

Western culture people for certain and maybe in the twentieth century on people who might read this are probably wondering "what about Jesus Christ?" We've gone before, during, and after the supposed life of Jesus Christ, and we said nothing about him! That's right! There's nothing to say! There is no archaeology of Jesus Christ around this time! There's even a big archaeological debate on the existence of the city of Nazareth around this time! You would think that if there was a son of god, who walked on water, caused a big ruckus by turning over tables and promised salvation for all would be plastered all over the mediterraenean at this time! Instead, you find Philo and Josephus who are silent about a Jesus Christ. We've already covered those two characters, and for some readers who might wonder about Josephus; it's well known that the one passage in Josephus . . . one little passage; you would think he'd wright chapters and books on Jesus Christ; but, no we find one little vague couple of sentences . . . is a Eusebius forgery; it't been proven forgery in so many ways for so long; i'm not going to lenghthen this by going into that Eusebius forgery in depth. I would like to mention one really remarkable archaeological record that is also absent of any mention of Jesus Christ - coins.

Yes, coins from Minoa crete over 1000B.C. have been found with mazes on them, of course, there's the Alexander the Great coin with the rams horns. I've seen Greek coins around 300 B.C. with geometric algebra on them. For a thousand years before the supposed life of Jesus Christ, people coined every major historical event, concern, and major figures, kings and philosophers. There are no Jesus Christ coins. There's people who have mentioned passages that the Jews don't make idols; but, they don't do so so their mythology can't be disproved. It's the same reason the gods were moved first to the heavens, then to extra dimensions, anywhere that can't be seen. Besides, when one comes to understand that the Gospels and Pauline epistles are Herodian/Pro-Roman(give to caesar what is his; in other words pay your taxes, Matt 22:15, Mark 12:17 and even in the Pauline epistles), then you would figure that someone, somewhere would make Jesus Christ coins. It wouldn't have been up to the Jews to do so. Oh yes, they had coins too! So where does this Jesus Christ come from?

He comes from Midrashing. Almost everypage of every gospel and Pauline epistle and even Revelations has it stated where they get their info about Jesus Christ - from scripture. Yes, that's right, Jesus Christ is scripturally derived. That's what Philo started as you might recall. The scholarship showing the midrashing is again volumous. I'll just give a few highlights.

- Romans “16:25 Now to him that is of power to stablish you according to my gospel, and the preaching of Jesus Christ, according to the revelation of the mystery, which was kept secret since the world began,” See, Paul is willing to tell you anything to convert you: - 1Corinthians "9:22 To the weak became I as weak, that I might gain the weak: I am made all things to all men, that I might by all means save some."

- and for my favorite midrashes, Zechariah 9:9 seems to be the midrash for Jesus coming into Jerusalem on an ass . . . or a colt . . . or both depending on which gospel you read!

- here's a pretty good one, - Isaiah 7:14 says a lord shall be born of a virgin and called Immanual. The Gospel of Matthewe quotes this even calling Jesus Christ Emannuel.

- this link is still up as of when I've re-written to polish up my "Gospel of Truth"; so, I'll go ahead and mention it again!

Once again, throughout the New Testament, they tell you, we made it up; Jesus Christ is derived from scripture. They say repeatedly, 'according to scripture.' I'd like to think this is pretty clear. True christians will just say, "that's prophecy", at which point is impossible to help them.

Getting back to the Romans 16:25 passage . . . it mentions something about mysteries. All the sungod priests since at least Greek times kept the mythology as 'mysteries.' Well, according to this Herodotus passage(book 2, chapter 61 of the "Histories"(de silencourt translation)}, the Egyptians also practiced keeping the mythology a mystery. Back then, there were tests to see if your mythology was worth listening to: in Dideche Chapter 11. An example in the New testament is 1John4:1.

Readers might wonder why I havn't mentioned much about the gospels. The gospels come before the Pauline epistles, right? All I can say is it's well known amongst New Testament scholars that the Pauline epistles came before the Gospels. If that's not proof enough that they are made up, well, I can't help you! But, I'm going to now put in evidences about Jesus Christ being a sungod.

- Origin “Against Celsus”-1-47 says that “For in the 18th book of his Antiquities31463146 [ἀρχαιολογίας. S.] Cf. Joseph., Antiq., book xviii. c. v. sec.2. of the Jews, Josephus bears witnessto John as having been a Baptist, and as promising purification tothose who underwent the rite. Now this writer, although notbelieving in Jesus as the Christ”

Further along, not much more than a sentence or two!

“Paul, a genuine disciple of Jesus,says that he regarded this James as a brother of the Lord, not so muchon account of their relationship by blood, or of their being brought uptogether, as because of his virtue and doctrine.” This passage really says it all; that James brother of Jesus is not like a brother brother, but brother to a club, that of the Jesus christ club; and it also is proof that James the Just has been overwritten by Jesus Christ. But as Justin Martyr says, Jesus Christ is just a sungod.

- Justin Martyr ‘defended himself from Pagans(Christians word for those who are not christian), by saying “CHAPTER XXI — ANALOGIES TO THE HISTORY OF CHRIST.

And when we say also that the Word, who is the first-birth of God, was produced without sexual union, and that He, Jesus Christ, our Teacher, was crucified and died, and rose again, and ascended into heaven, we propound NOTHING DIFFERENT from WHAT YOU BELIEVE regarding those whom you esteem sons of Jupiter. For you know how many sons your esteemed writers ascribed to Jupiter: Mercury, the interpreting word and teacher of all;AEsculapius, who, though he was a great physician, was struck by a thunderbolt, and so ascended to heaven; and Bacchus too, after he had been torn limb from limb; and Hercules, when he had committed himself to the flames to escape his toils; and the sons of Leda, and Dioscuri; andPerseus, son of Danae; and Bellerophon, who, though sprung from mortals, rose to heaven on the horse Pegasus. For what shall I say of Ariadne, and those who, like her, have been declared to be set among the stars?

- And for my favorite smoking gun, -"then he clearly manifested himself to be the son of god. For had he not come in the flesh, how should men have been able looked upon him, that they might be saved?"

This is in the Epistle of Barnabas chapter 4:13-14. Jesus Christ is different from all sungods before him; he's suppose to be historical. Here, we see a logical reasoning for why somebody felt they needed to historicise the sungods. Perhaps Barnabas wrote or started the Gospel of Mark; we probably will never know.

- Iraeneus "Against Heresies", book 3, chapter 11, section 7. Here, it is revealed that Mathew comes from the Ebonites, Luke comes from Marcion(who put together the gospels and Pauline epistles for the first time), and John comes from a Valentinus, and mark comes from some 'separatists.' This Iraeneus passage is so frustrating! He knocks out three of the four gospels in terms of authorship; but, leaves the Gospel of Mark a mystery. He does indicate that the Gospel of Mark was not written by an individual, but a community or at least more than one person.

As I've indicated, mythological religion is the algebraic X standing for I don't know. Whenever someone does something great, someone else decides to go another direction to get the money and power they covet. Before Christianity, there was a semi-rational philosophies of Platonism. If you read about Clement and Origen and Tertullian, you'll see they were trying to create an easier philosophy than the semi-mathematical Platonisms.

- Tertulian who said, "I believe because it is absurd." Further "The Son of God was born: there is no shame, because it is shameful.

And the Son of God died: it is wholly credible, because it is unsound.

And, buried, He rose again: it is certain, because impossible."

Where people want to be fooled, there's always somebody willing to oblige them,

- "XXXI. That it will be necessary sometimes to use falsehood as a remedy for the benefit of those who require such a mode of treatment(that is Eusebius Preparatio Evangelica, book 12, chapter 31." This is the chapter heading(the style of the age); if you go to this book and the chapter, you'll see that Eusebius quotes Plato's Laws.

Eusebius was Emperor Constantine's right hand man. They organised the Nicene conferences to decide who of the different christianities was to make the official Catholic Christianity. But, that history more or less has to do with other history other than sungods; so, I'm stopping here.