Friday, April 18, 2014

Astro video for the day/ Moses thought for the day extras

This video is better than I remember it.  It's a video of a descent module from the Cassini spacecraft.  The Cassini spacecraft is still orbiting around the Saturn system.

- There's some linguistic comparison of Moses to other cultures lawgivers.  This evidence casts doubt in the very existence of Moses. Indian lawgiver- Menu.  Syria and Egypt law giver - Mises/Menes. Minos is the Crete/Minoan law giver. - Acharya S/D.M. Murdock - "Did Moses Exist? The Myth of of the Israelite lawgiver", page 16

- Some more about Philo, who I mention in my "Gospel of Truth"(first post of this blog) . . . Philo's brother Alexander the Alabarch was the builder of the Jerusalem temple.  The very one who Philo's nephew Tiberias Julius Alexander helped Emperor Vespasian destroy and is mentioned in the Gospel of Mark(hence dating the Gospel past 66 A.D.). Related to Moses, Philo wrote a book about Moses to popularize him because the Pagan Roman world didn't know him so well.  Because of Philo's influence(once again, see my Gospel of Truth), there arose at the time all kinds of mythologized books about Moses - "Eighth book of Moses", "Key of Moses", and "The Hidden book of Moses on the great name, that for everything, in which is the name of the one who rules all."  These books combined Moses with various pagan gods, pre-Christian gospels. - Acharya S/D.M. Murdock - "Did Moses Exist? The Myth of of the Israelite lawgiver", page 12

- Jewish books before the Babylonian exhile, Amos, Habakkuk, Hosea, Isaiah, Jerimiah, Johah, Michah, Naham, and Zephaniah don't mention a Moses.  Well, Isaiah does; but, in a Psalm passage, it's revealed that Moses name is about a mythology water bringer. This link suggests that Isaiah is a play on a 'song of Moses.'  Just scroll down to the Isaiah section.  This is like Moses describing his own death(Dueteronomy Chapter 34), which is another piece of evidence that Moses is made up. Isaiah is a play on Moses mythology - Acharya S/D.M. Murdock - "Did Moses Exist? The Myth of of the Israelite lawgiver", pages 30-31

- Another biblical tidbit unrelated to Moses, is Psalm 78-2, "I will open my mouth in a parable: I will utter dark sayings of old" Parable is metaphor; mythology is analogy.  They will make up mythology.  It also says dark sayings of old.  This reminds me of an Egyptian mathematical papyrus which says it points out 'dark knowledge.'  Somehow knowledge is dark secrets.

Also in Isaiah 78 is a story similar to the Moses story of dividing the seas, but this does not have Moses.  It has God/Jehovah(whatever you want to call him) doing the dividing of the seas.  From 78-13 on, one sees a proto book of Exodus, only a God version and not a Moses version. This suggests the Exodus story is an elaboration of Isaiah 78. In fact, archaeologistsw have found that Canaanite stories are similar. So, the Hebrews clearly took this Canaanite mythology and recast it just like they did with the Babylonian "Epic of Gilgamesh" and everything else(the ten commandments for instance were taken from the Egyptians; see my "Gospel of Truth"). The original Canaanite version of the Exodus story would be the 'dark sayings of old.'

Wednesday, April 16, 2014

Astro picture for the day/ quote/thought extras

Credit & Copyright: T. Rector (U. Alaska Anchorage) & H. Schweiker (WIYN, NOAO, AURA, NSF)

Quote for the day,

"The moving finger wrights and having writ moves on. Nor all your piety nor whit can cancel half a line.  Nor all your tear wash out  a word of it." - Omar Khayyam

In episode 30 of the Mechanical Univese(Potential and Capacitance), David L. Goodstein mentions how come lightning rods have round nobs on them instead of a sharp point as Benjamin Franklin thought. The reason is because of King George(of the British/American revolutionary war fame) thought they should be round instead of a sharp point. These are the types of connections that James Burke seems to be most in to. But, he makes some other connections.  I make some connections between these other connections and Jacob Bronowski's understanding of the nature of mathematics here,

Mathematics is the real connections. It's the underlying structural connections found by questioning assumptions - like the way questioning the assumptions of the flat Earth because that's what it looks like on first appearance.

Mathematics is an abstraction.  Abstraction is a common form that many other structures have.  For instance, two apples and two oranges both have the similar structure of the number two. Or the way differencial equations can be used to describe chemical, mechanical, electrical phenomenon. Yet, James Burke is proudly quoted as saying,

“Learners may study either history or physics, or perhaps only Renaissance history and astrophysics. People tend to become experts in highly specialized fields, learning more and more about less and less.” –James Burke

It happens(James Burke connections like) that legitimate things are done for illegitimate reasons.  For instance, Brahmagupta comes up with the general form solution of the linear Diophantine equation(Diophantus doesn't solve this in his collection of 'Diopantine equations.') to fix the stats of planetary motions collected by generations of Indian(India indian) astronomers. James Burke shows that the major historical events of Western civilization at least can be mapped out and clarified by the history of science and technology.  But, as the quote above indicates, he doesn't understand the connections of mathematics(the fundamental knowledge) to everything else.

Wednesday, April 9, 2014

astro picture for the day/ Quote for the day/thought for the day . . . Greek Philosophy

Image Processing: Oliver Czernetz - Data: Digitized Sky Survey (POSS-II)

Quote for the day,

"Concepts without precepts are empty. but precepts without concepts are blind." - Immanuel Kant

Thought for the day . . . Aegean collapse and Greek philosophy,

My initial exporation of the Greek period focused more on Greek mathematics; i've recenlty learned some of the value of their philosophy.

The word Renaissance makes most people today(21st century through the past to the Renaissance) think of the European 1500s Renaissance.  Before then, there's what the Renaissance people called 'the dark ages.' But, another dark ages has become the greatest archaeological mystery of the last hundred years or so. This dark ages led to the Greek renaissance from 600 B.C. to the Athens golden age.  The Athenian high point really only lasted a generation or two before the Spartans ganged up with the Persians, other Greek city-states that didn't like being taxed to put up the Parthenon.  And then, the Macedonians of Alexander the Great led to the beginning of the Hellenistic Roman period which really made Athens just a city in the Hellenistic mediterraenean.

Before this dark ages before the Greeks and the Israelites, there was the world of the Egyptians, Hittites, and Minoans(also Babylonians). A recent book about the Aegean collapse is getting a little popular. Eric Cline's "1177 B.C.: The Year Civilization Collapsed."  I'm not going to explain what the conclusion is; really, the conclusion is complex and inconclusive.  I'll say that their world became to big to administer.  One could say much the same happened with the Romans.  I've of course argued for a certain religious anti-science that took over.  I don't think this happened with the late bronze age. But, I do think that because they didn't spend their time and wealth(whether you want to call it money back then or not) on science and technology to make everything from agricultural to dealing with pirates, they collapsed.

Because of the collapse of these hugh empires, more people were able to learn on their own and what they wanted to learn.  As everyone notes, the Greeks before the Athenian period were a bunch of city-states. These city states evolved in a diversity of ways.  The contrast between the Spartans and Athenians is particularly striking. But, the fact is the Greeks diversity allowed a certain amount of questioning of various assumptions/beliefs. The video below talks about some interesting Greek philosophy.  Rebecca Goldstein mentions the Greek tragedies argued for doing science/art to make life worth living.

Some more Greek philosophy that I've learned about recently, through Peter Pesic's "Abel's Proof"(chapter one), is Plato, Socretes, and Thaetateous{who made certain generalisations of irrational numbers beyond the Pythagorean proof of the irrationality of the square root of 2; There's infinit series, and with different proportionalities like arithmetic, geometry(addition and multiplicative respectively); Thaetateous made this connection and defined different types of irrationality.  Eudoxus then was able to calculate the precise number angles of the Platonic solids . . .)} is how doing mathematics stings you're assumptions.  Kind of like how learning the Earth is round and not flat which is what your initial perception is.  The Greeks valued this sting as what should happen.  Religion tries to prevent this sting.

astro picture for the day

Credit: ESO(European southern Observatory)

This is a supernova remnant with a chance alignment with a star.

astro picture for the day

ESA/NASA Hubble Space Telescope image

Tuesday, April 1, 2014

astro picture for the day/ Throught for the day - 3102 B.C!

Image credit ESO/MUSE consortium/R. Bacon

This astronomy picture of the Orion nebula is from the ESO's new 'Muse' 3d spectrograph.  They're pretty excited about it.  I must say it's pretty close and maybe better than the Hubble Space Telescope image.  There may be details that my eye anyways, can't see.

- Thought for the day,

3102 B.C.

I don't want to get into too much large numbers and technicalities, but the Indians divided up time into cycles of various thousands and millions of years. The fundamental return of all planets is called Mahayuga which is 4,320,000 years long. It is divided into 4 quarteryugas of equal duration, and the last quarteryuga is Kaliyuga which starts according to the Indians around Friday, Febuary 18, 3102 B.C!

There was a sunrise and midnight system, they tried to calculate the number of revolutions. Aryabhata, around 510 A.D. The mean(average) motions motions of the sunrise and midnight calculations did not agree. Brahmagupta tried to make corrections of these. He did so by making the general solution to linear Diophantine equations.

Kind of like there's a quadratic equation that allows you to solve all second degree equations just by plugging in, there's were efforts to solve number theory, and make a closed form solution. The linear Diophantine general form equation was arrived at first, as far as I can tell, by Brahmagupta. He used Euclid's algorithm. There's actually two forms of it. One is a subtraction form(real easy, just subtract the smaller of two numbers of a number couple . . . repeatedly till you can't calculate anymore), and a division version; the division form is expressed as a=bx+r, r is the remainder. After the first division of a by b, you divide b by r. This is a slight change from regular division. You can repeat this and solve say G.C.D problems. Most people learn how to calculate G.C.D. by prime factor trees today. That's a later more sophisticated way. Euclid's algorithms turns out to still be interesting and valuable for number theory purposes that most people never see, like the linear Diophantine equation. There's a few more things to arrive at the linear Diophantine equation though. One performs the Euclidean algorithm till you get to 1. Then you rearrage one of the Euclidean algorithms to get 1 on one side. Then you rearrange another to get a remainder term that is analogous to the previous algorithm calculation, and then substitute. Do some simplifiying, and one gets the linear Diophantine equation. I'm just describing it.

Brahmagupta didn't correct Aryabhata empiracly. He did so assuming the date of 3102 B.C.

But, here's the kicker, a Kaliyuga is one tenth a Mahayuga, or 432,000 which equals 2x60^3. 60 is a common number of Babylonian mathematics. This number occurs in some Berossos, a Babylonian astrologer who moved to Greece to found a school of astrology around 300 B.C.

Berossos tells of a conflagration will take place at conjuctions in cancer, and a deluge when they come together in Capricorn. In Persian sources, a deluge is said to take place whenever the planets come together in the space between Pisces and Aries; the last time this happened was on Febuary, 3102 B.C.!(at least according to astrology, not scientific fact; this is a date long enough ago, that they could just say there was a conjunction back then).

We don't know whether Berossos got his 3102 from the Indians or the other way around, but in some quotes mentioned by Van Der Waerden in his "Geometry and Algebra of Ancient Civilizations", he suggests the end of the world predicted by astrological means was a common idea. He mentions one quote from the "Laws of Manu."

----------------- more astronomy for the day

Spitzer infrared space telescope 360 degree panorama of our entire Milky Way galaxy!

Monday, March 24, 2014

Astro picture for the day

ESA/NASA Hubble Space Telescope image

Note for the day: I've more or less updated or fixed the mechanical universe links.  Instead of embedding, I just put in links.  For some reason, I couldn't find the videos when searching for them through the blogger youtube search engine. I could have sworn I posted almost all the Mechanical Universe videos, only in order.  The Mechanical Universe videos are not exactly in order of how science discovered things.  For instance circles is episode 9.  Circles should have been number one!  Then the Mechanical Universe producers made two episodes about the fundamental forces; these should have been last!  These are episodes 10 and 11 respectively.  I'll go ahead and post those here just to make this a bit more of a thought for the day.

Mechanical Universe 10: Fundamental Forces  and Mechanical Universe 11: Gravity, Electricity, & Magnetism

- Quote for the day extra,

""Let us come to Chaldean manifestations. In discussing them Plato's pupil, Eudoxus, whom the best scholars consider easily the first in astronomy, has left the following opinion in writing: 'No reliance whatever is to be placed in Chaldean p471astrologers when they profess to forecast a man's future from the position of the stars on the day of his birth." - Eudoxus, through Cicero, De Divinatione, book 2, 87