Friday, March 30, 2012

thought for the day/ Russia is building a nuclear space rocket

Robert Zubrin has been argueing for a Mars mission based on living off the land and other design principles.  He's shown that we can get to mars for comparative inexpensive price(500 Billion dollars) without nuclear; now, imagine what one can do with nuclear propulsion?  This is how I've felt about the Zubrin Mars Direct plan.  We have the means to do nuclear propulsion; this isn't 'unobtaineum.'  Nuclear energy for space energy is what can open up the solar system frontier anyways(it can open up the path to the stars; but, even then, maybe anti-matter or even a laser solar sail would be better!).

Thursday, March 29, 2012

astro picture for the day

ESA/Nasa Hubble space telescope image

youtube for the day/ baths and quarks

 . . . and solitons! Are quantum particles solitons themselves(other than the binding for between them as suggested in this good/cute physics video?

Further is life and consequently mankind a soliton?  What does that mean for our knowledge of the universe?  I'll try to get back to that hopefully soon!

Monday, March 26, 2012

quote for the day

"In the history  of a mathematical theory the developmental stages are easily distinguished: the naive, the formal, and the critical." - David Hilbert

Sunday, March 25, 2012

youtube for the day/ The Fibonacci sequence

and they say number theory has no applications!

quote for the day

"The value of pure existence proofs consists precisely in that the individual construction is eliminated by them, and that many different constructions are subsumed under one fundamental idea so that only what is essential to the proof stands out clearly; brevity and economy of thought are the raison d'etre of existence proofs . . . . To prohibit existence statements . . . . is tantamount to relinquishing the science of mathematics altogether." - David Hilbert

I don't mind existence proofs because I figure at some future point, some way to construct the entities will be made.  In some ways, existence proofs point the way towards clear research programs.

Friday, March 16, 2012

thought for the day/ Graphene piezo-electronics. to listen to them talking about it.

The above picture is of a Scanning Tunneling microscope.  An Stm was invented in the 1970s; they are true quantum technologies much like electron microscopes.  I don't mean they work similarly; i mean they are both quantum technologies.  An Stm works by 1) piezo-electronics(a hint of why I've posted about piezo electronic graphene above) in each spacial dimension.  Piezo-electronics are materials that either generate electricity by being squeezed, or bend materials by applying electricity.  Now, the piezos in an Stm are stimulated by electric currents that comes from moving a tip(as close to nanoscale as possible) across a surface.  The electric current is generated by a quantum phenomenon - that of electrons tunneling from one surface barrier to another; that is, electrons can be in one place(say on one side of a wall or another) to another place(say to the other side of a wall), because of the wave nature of electrons(quantum mechanics associates a wave nature to all matter - mostly by De Broglie, but Shroedinger generalized Bohn quantum mechanics by means of De Broglies suggestion, and more or less created quantum  mechanics as we know it today; some, would say Paul Dirac's combining special relativity to quantum mechanics is the true starting point of quantum mechanics; i've said enough about this for now).

Scanning tunneling microscopes can image individual atoms(just like we discovered the solar system indirectly, we discovered atoms, electrons and much else, indirectly; see my nature and origin of mathematical knowledge for much more!  We discovery 'mathematically', or 'indirectly', and then much later, we send off space probes to look back and see the earth and planets revolving around the sun, and likewise, we discover quantum mechanics and much later create fantastic technologies to actually see atoms 'directly.').

Stm's can also pick up and place atoms.  Only, don't worry, we can't make every object to atomic specifications because to do so by Stm's would require billions of years to see the final product(maybe a small cell phone or even a snall calculator).  But, what if we could scale down an Stm to the size of a large molecule?

Well, then the frequency of picking up and placing individual atoms becomes astronomically faster!  Hence why I'm posting about this graphene piezo-electronics.  There's been some other breakthroughs in making microscopic piezos; but, this is graphene, a new wonder material of the last ten years or so.  Graphene is a atomic width two dimensional material(daming up nature; see my article about the nature and origin of mathematical knowledge - the third article posted on my blog here) that is able to do much - energy generation . . . Here we have almost a perpetual motion machine!  Basically, it can keep generating electricity till the universe gets too cold!  This is just one wonder technology of the coming nanotechnology revolution(others would be a.i. supercomputers in your hand, the library of congress in your hand, you start to get the point!)

One problem with sizing down Stm has been piezos(I've been wondering for decades now really why they don't just use the same silicon chip making technology they use to make microtechnology gears to make microscale Stms!).  There was a previous piezo breakthrough; but, this maybe even more exciting!  Maybe we could use that new rapid prototyping technology I posted about just below to print piezo-graphene.  Maybe these piezo graphenes can just fold up into any nano-mechanical part we wish!?  Plus with the printing of these piezo graphenes, we can assemble these nano-mechanical parts(by means of piezo graphenes) into nanomanufacturing systems!? The coming months could tell the tale!(Drexlerian nanotechnologists have been mentaly and emotionaly preparing themselves to the idea that the road to nano-manufacturing could be twenty years down the line(probably based on dna-nanotech.  I'm thinking, well wait a few months to see just how fast this stuff advances . . . do we hear advances in a week, maybe a month? . . . but, I'm hopefull that the breakthroughs may finally be in place; we could be living in a nanotechnological future within the year!  I would say dna-nanotech alone can pattern these piezo graphenes into molecular scale Stms!)

Thursday, March 15, 2012

quote for the day

"The greatest luck is the discovery of a new truth; to that, recognition can add little or nothing." - Franz Neumann

Monday, March 12, 2012

youtube for the day/ 3d printing advances microtechnology

There's always been more than one nanotechnology method - dna nanotech, the silicon phot etch technique which became microtechnology of the 1980s; Scientific American made this famous with a cover of two micrometer gears that can move each other; i'm having a hard time finding an online picture of these.  Scanning Tunneling microscopes.  Each type has made advances and taken the lead; just when you think one is the most promising, the other takes the lead. I certainly find it exciting.

This latest 3d printing technology uses lasers interaction with molecules; so, it can potentialy make nanometer parts.  Well, the article I read said it can make nanometer parts.  This is actually microtechnology(a millonth of a meter; not a billionth for nanotechnology).

The above youtube is of a 200 micrometer racecar(which doesn't work).  Compared to those 1980 micro gears, this is a pretty good advance.  And, if this method works by means of molecular transformations, then, maybe this is more promising than one can hope for!

Saturday, March 10, 2012

quote for the day

"Finally we shall place the sun himself at the center of the universe. All this is suggested . . . by the harmony of the whole universe, if we only face the facts with both eyes open." - Copernicus

Copernicus(Aristarchus actually back in like 300 to 200 B.C. was the first; but, he was laughed off the stage by Archimedes) put the sun at the center of the universe; this presented many problems which Tycho Brahe(with many interesting assistants, family and a dwarf), Kepler, and Galileo filled in the vacuum . . . the problems posed by Copernicus's bold move; Newton generalised and unified to a higher mathematical level; this was in turn generalized to a higher mathematical level again by Lagrange and Laplace a hundred years after Newton.  Anyways, this all fits what Jacob Bronowski shows(and I generalize at least in a more concrete direction by means of James Burke's historical findings, as described in my origin of knowledge post . . . second to last on this blog) in his "Origins of Knowledge and Imagination.  The above quote obviously belongs!

youtube for the day/ Project Universe - Episode about the Big Bang

I remember finding this Universe: the Infinit Frontier.  They price this video series at five hundred dollars.  I just found this series; it's better and you can't get your hands on it in dvd form.  Honestly, I feel like I've confused these two video series.  I just found it and need to rewatch it to perhaps make more comments.  It is of course out of date(being made in 1978); but, it does mention Stephen Hawkings exploding black holes theory; it doesn't mention Alan Guth's inflationary cosmology(confirmed by the Cobe satellite . . . mentioned by Steven Weinberg in his "First three minutes" by the way . . . and later to more detail by later satellites).

But, this video series seems to me to convey the intellectual excitement better than most science videos.  

I think I can take advantage of this to point out something else somewhat related.  It's related in the sense that people often feel that simple mathematics(like number theory . . . which has been taken to such a level as to be inaccessable to most peoples minds) and science will never have practical applications.  Well, this application may be far off . . . even for a mature nanotechnological and quantum computer future!  Well, I don't know; i think it could be compared to the manhatten project or Apollo program for a nanomanufacturing, a.i.(made possible, probably, in a mature nanotechnological future), and quantum computing future! 

It is a recent (actually first breakthroughs appear to be in the 1990s mostly; of course, there the einstein rosen bridge of the 1930s) theoretical exciting possibility.  I'll go ahead and give a little bit of a abstract about it,


Making Stargates: The Physics of Traversable Absurdly Benign Wormholes

  • J.F. WoodwardCorresponding author contact information, E-mail the corresponding author
  • Department of Physics, California State University Fullerton, Fullerton, CA 92834
  • Available online 1 October 2011.


Extremely short throat “absurdly benign” wormholes enabling near instantaneous travel to arbitrarily remote locations in both space and time – stargates – have long been a staple of science fiction. The physical requirements for the production of such devices were worked out by Morris and Thorne in 1988. They approached the issue of rapid spacetime transport by asking the question: what constraints do the laws of physics as we know them place on an “arbitrarily advanced culture” (AAC)? Their answer – a Jupiter mass of negative restmass matter in a structure a few tens of meters in size – seems to have rendered such things beyond the realm of the believably achievable. This might be taken as justification for abandoning further serious exploration of the physics of stargates. If such an investigation is pursued, however, one way to do so is to invert Morris and Thorne's question and ask: if “arbitrarily advanced aliens” (AAAs) have actually made stargates, what must be true of the laws of physics for them to have done so? Elementary arithmetic reveals that stargates would have an “exotic” density of on the order of 1022 gm/cm3, that is, orders of magnitude higher than nuclear density. Not only does one have to achieve this stupendous density of negative mass matter, it must be done, presumably, only with the application of “low” energy electromagnetic fields. We examine this problem, finding that a plausible solution does not depend on the laws of quantum gravity, as some have proposed. Rather, the solution depends on understanding the nature of electrons in terms of a semi-classical extension of the exact, general relativistic electron model of Arnowitt, Deser, and Misner (ADM), and Mach's Principle."

Yes, a wormhole.  I don't think this abstract gives details about negative matter; but, i recall a paper shown to me at now obsolete messageboards showing that the cassimir affect could supply such negative matter.  The cassimir affect has been experimentally confirmed back in the later 1970s I do believe.  the cassimir affect has to do with a quantum attractive force between two plates(on a small almost molecular scale; some say this could pose problems for nanomachines); the way it works is that the plates make for less quantum wave states in between the two plates than all the quantum states bubbling out of the vacuum(this is a quantum electrodynamics thing; when Paul Dirac combined special relativity with the quantum mechanics of Shroedinger back in the 1930s, one major prediction of his generalized quantum mechanics was that the vacuum has particles coming into and out of existence so long as it all happens within the confines of the heisenberg principle; this is also how the quantum forces work; they exchange particles that come in and out of existence of the vacuum) outside of the plates; so, there's a greater outside pressure than in between the plates; this is the cassimir affect.   It could allow us to make wormholes happen(perhaps in the 22nd or 23rd centuries . . . if we survive a nanotechnological future). 

I should say I saw that I could post this wormhole stuff to post in relation to cosmology(and post these great science videos only available through youtube right now!) because black holes have to do with quantum gravity, and so does cosmology.  High density objects like studied in the frontiers of science today may allow us to make wormholes in perhaps comparatively near future!

Friday, March 9, 2012

youtube for the day/ Gerard k. O'neill - the High Frontier

I hope to comment perhaps more extensivelly in the future.  But, the primary reason to post this is because I remember, when young, I associated space technology with advanced, futuristic, exciting technology.  This I'm argueing now is similar to what I've been saying about how people have thought some things are the way things are - the earth centered cosmology, the Greeks with their geometric algebra(I'd say people's idea of fun; they say, I want to have fun; what they mean is spectating, not doing fun; and certainly not scientific adventure; and, they phrase it so  that you can't come back and respond; they stop thought dead in its tracks).

  One of Gerard O'Neill's students, Eric Drexler, perhaps stumbled on the idea of nano-manufacturing(it had been thought of before by Richard Feynman back in 1959).  This idea, Eric Drexler, realized changes the need for space colonization as the necessary way to solve humanities physical needs. 

Wednesday, March 7, 2012

Tuesday, March 6, 2012

Monday, March 5, 2012

art picture for the day 2/ Thales of Miletus

This is a 2nd century A.d. copy of a Greek original.  Well, one could certainly be skeptical of whether this gives a genuine picture of what Thales looked like.  There's similar 2nd century Roman copies of Greek originals of Pythagoras, Plato, and even Socrates.  They all look different at least; you wouldn't expect them to look the same!  I might try to find those; finding this picture of Thales sculpture was hard enough!

Thales is credited with lots.  People try to argue against this or that.  One main thing Thales is credited for is logical proof; but, Aristotle is known as the guy to really abstract away the logical proof process that Greek mathematicians were doing for centuries before him.  Well, maybe Thales was doing logical proof in a vague way.  The arithmetic checks of the Egyptians can be considered 'proof' also!

We know some of the 'major' theorems 'proved' by Thales were at least known to the Babylonians - such as the 'all angles in a semi-circle are right angles.'(I've seen this theorem used in solving the Kepler problem; basicaly, Isaac Newton deriving the three Kepler laws from his inverse square law;), the base angles of an isosceles triangle are equal(a main theorem of 'elementary' trigonometry; also, this theorem was called the bridge of asses in Medieval europe because few could prove it . . . even if it is obvious to a Donkey!), and some other much more elementary proofs.  Well, the equal vertical angles is kind of fun. 

Thales is also suppose to have calculated the height of the Pyramids(without just hiking up and measuring it), and predicted a solar eclipse which stopped a war and might have saved his ass from getting killed.  Some speculate he used Babylonian astronomical records to make his lucky guess!

One thing may be more certain than anything else; Thales may have been the first after the Greek dark ages(from the period of Troy and Minoa Crete to the Greeks we know; guys like Thales, Pythagoras, Plato, Athens, and Sparta, Archimedes and so on) to travel to the Babylonians and Egyptians, find their mathematical knowledge interesting and bring it back to Greece where people may have been free to do more mathematics than those cultures were since they did their original creative energies.

A last thought about whether Thales did all the things attributed to him; whereas with Pythagoras, there's indications that he made a school and that school of followers attributed everything to him whether he did them or not, there is nothing from the Greeks or anyone else that he didn't do these things.  There's the whole point that Thales 'angles in a semi-circle are right angles' goes back to the Babylonians; but, the point is that Thales proved it logicaly; not just observed and noted it; these are two differnt things. I've seen some pretty good arguements about him using Babylonian astronomical data as remarked already. I give Thales the benefit of the doubt.

art picture for the day/ Babylonian science god Nabu

Some will say this is a Babylonian god to wisdom, or writing and literature.  It dates to 800 B.C.

Sunday, March 4, 2012

thought for the day/ scientific humanism ethics

I recall bringing up some Jacob Bronowski ethics when trying to explain and point out that despite the early Hebrew innovation of a single god and refusal to accept other cultures beliefs( Judges 1:19 And the LORD was with Judah; and he drave out the inhabitants of the mountain; but could not drive out the inhabitants of the valley, because they had chariots of iron." this is one thing that didn't make it in my gosple of truth; really one can throw the whole bible and those who don't think critically about it; here we see that the early Judahites were trying to cleanse the other cultures around them; they were saying they are the chosen ones and everybody else are evil and someday god will wipe them out; the innovation of the single god goes hand in hand with this refusal to accept other people gods!  The flood story is saying god must wipe out all the non-chosen evil cultures surrounding them!  they were the original intolerants!), the word 'all' is dangerous.  Not all Judahites were these extemists(as the bible shows; they constantly mention some of their fellows willing to do others religions; hence, not all Jews were intolerant extremists).  There's more to say about the qualifications that need to be said when pointing out how supernatural religion is anti-science(since humanity is defined by its dependence on scientific knowledge; every human being is born with natural curiosity) and the fact that well, when you reach back to learn about this, you end up talking about the Hebrews; but, I've reviewed enough and wants to get on with some more stuff.

I don't recall pointing out Jacob Bronowski's findings about ethics and spirituality of mathematics and science.  He points out that humanity is defined by our dependence on science and technology(whether mathematically understood!  I've recently, finally, put up notes on Stephen Wolfram's recent speach which I posted a few months ago).  And, I think the fact that most people start pointing out that mathematics doesn't solve the universe all in one go shows that there must be a mental/emotional problem with those who go off on a anti-science spirituality tangeant; hence, one reason for this blog!

Jacob Bronowski further finds that to do science and mathematics, one must have courage to take on new ideas, skepticism to question those new ideas, and honesty to admit when the facts fit the logic(theory).  These are probably the two biggies.  Maybe there's a third when he points out perhaps more in his "origins of knowledge and imagination" than his "Science and Human Values." is that mathematical science cannot have a final answer.

Today, there's a transhumanist movement of uploading oneself into nanocomputers.  I don't share this view.  I agree that humanity can and almost certainly will become more technologized, but I don't think we'll just upload ourselves in a nanocomputer, and that's it.  I think our dynamisism is a big part of our consciousness(feedback, talking to oneself must be a big part of consciousness; but, of course, if it only happens once, then, the consciousness only happens once; to be continually consciouse, this feedback process most be happening continuously or dynamically)  I feel like I'm gettin ahead of myself already.(coming back, seems to me that some choose to excercise and some don't and choose to go party; i've chosen to excercise both the mind and body; and I think that humanity has to chose whether to be an intellectual and excercise rational viewpoints, or go and party at the church; i for one am shocked that the transhumanist movement has chosen not to excercise rationality and get away from those who will mary you to irrationality)  I mean to point out that fact that mathematics is always a finite approximation suggests something ethically.  Well, maybe that fact means something spiritually; this human adventure of finding the rythm and harmony of the ideas of that we can find of the universe is a spiritual thing; it is the greatest human adventure; and the fact of the organisatio of humanity both secular and religiously does not take this into account shows that we are in the wrong right now(i'm of the opinion that nano-manufacturing can make for a better organisation that allows the human mind to be freed)  The rythm and harmony of thought, that is indeed what mathemaitcs is; and it is infinit adventure and shown by Kurt Godel's incompleteness theorems(Jacob Bronowski's "origin of knowledge and imagination" is distinguished by his other books by his relating various philosophica issues of mathematics and science to Godel's theorems). 

I further point out that those who choose not to solve things rationality(that is what Jacob Bronowski's scientific humanism is; a rationalist philosophy; and the most general rational philosophy), do so by means of violence, and vagueness games such as supernatural religions and they're "respect my religion".  They'll play all kinds of vague games like believe and you will believe, and 'because we don't know, therefore, god exists." They refuse to ask questions or look through the telescope.  You'll never see Jesus Christ saying "question me".  In fact, the first chapter of Mark has it to follow authority; you know who made up the Gospels, the Romans and/or herodians. 

I'm still not sure I've written this thouroughy or well enough; but, i think this post is a bit of a culmination point for this blog; it comes full circle.  The modern day transhumanist movement is off on a Platonic(require that all mathematics be geometrical and straightedge and compass requirements, and be socially bound up with irrationalists religion) path.  Looks like we're in for Logan's run(also see Arthur C Clarke's "Against the Fall of Night") world.  The only thing they'll forget is the same thing guys like Tertullian forgot(who said what does Athens have to do with Jerusalem); we're the science technologically dependent species.  Go ahead, lock us up!  Maybe that'll be a good thing!  I have a feeling it will.  The irrationalists will forget the outside world like they do now.  Someday, there'll be an Alvin(the main character of Arthur C. Clarke's "Against the Fall of Night.") again, and a Jacob Bronowski, and a . . . I'm not telling you! 

Thursday, March 1, 2012

Thomas Paine The Origin of Freemasonry

I've included this essay 1) because I've addressed things like axiomatics and the Constitutionof the United States and some other relations of America and scientific humanism, and 2) I've addressed pretty heavily the nature and relations between science and religion.   This article is most fascinating from another standpoint.  It appeared before the decoding of the Rosetta Stone(not by much); the decoding of the Egyptian language allowed the study of sungod mythology and the subsequent suspicion that the Judeo-Christian religions have their origins in sun-worship.  A big question comes up due to this article, imo.  How did Thomas Paine know so much and have such a clear idea of sungod origins of Judeo-Christianity before the decoding of the Rosetta Stone?

Let's consider that last question from another perspective.  Those who have done linguistic, mythological, and historical analysis of the Bible have noticed that the King James Bible has a lot erasers in it!  The King James Bible almost seems like it was written to hide all kinds of linguistic, mythological, and historical errors(without finding them all).  How did the writers of the King James bible know about all these errors and embarrasing sayings and so on?  I attribute it to the pre-renaissance renaissance begun by the, Jewish, translations of Greek texts in Arab spain around 1000 A.D.  There, Europe actually started the critical analyses of the Bible for hundreds of years before the 1600 conferences and writeup of the King James bible.  If so, we could also have our answer on how an understanding of sungod worship could have been discovered by lowly Thomas Paine(I'm sure he just picked up on it from others he was in contact with).

Believe it or not, I'm not into the whole conspiracy stuff of the Illuminatti, and the Knights templar as shown by the "Da Vinci Code" writer.  Although, I do consider christianity more or less a conspiracy(I don't think you can send a blood line from todays anybody christian rulers all the way down to Eusebius, Origen, Iraneus, Justin Martyr and so on; i'm sure there were times when people picked up on some manuscripts and filled in the blanks or assumed it was some ancient knowledge; in fact, recently, I've started to think just that happened after the Emperor Hadrian sacked Israel for the last time in 125 A.D.  Then, people a generation later(15 to 20 year olds like Iraneus, Origin, Tertullian) would have picked up on various manuscripts laying around the Library of Alexandria and filled in the holes of what must have happened(as recently decoded by Robert Eisenman in his James Brother of Jesus; Jesus Christ is just a helllenistic sungod overwrite for James the Just).)

How indeed did Thomas Paine have such a clear idea of sungod origins of Christianity!?

"IT is always understood that Free-Masons have a secret which they carefully conceal; but from every thing that can be collected from their own accounts of Masonry, their real secret is no other than their origin, which but few of them understand; and those who do, envelope it in mystery.
The Society of Masons are distinguished into three classes or degrees. 1st. The Entered Apprentice. 2d. The Fellow Craft. 3d. The Master Mason.
The Entered Apprentice knows but little more of Masonry than the use of signs and tokens, and certain steps and words by which Masons can recognize each other without being discovered by a person who is not a Mason. The Fellow Craft is not much better instructed in Masonry, than the Entered Apprentice. It is only in the Master Mason’s Lodge, that whatever knowledge remains of the origin of Masonry is preserved and concealed.
In 1730, Samuel Pritchard, member of a constituted lodge in England, published a treatise entitled Masonry Dissected; and made oath before the Lord Mayor of London that it was a true copy. "Samuel Pritchard maketh oath that the copy hereunto annexed is a true and genuine copy in every particular." In his work he has given the catechism or examination, in question and answer, of the Apprentices, the Fellow Craft, and the Master Mason. There was no difficulty in doing this, as it is mere form.
In his introduction he says, the original institution of Masonry consisted in the foundation of the liberal arts and sciences, but more especially in Geometry, for at the building of the tower of Babel, the art and mystery of Masonry was first introduced, and from thence handed down by Euclid, a worthy and excellent mathematician of the Egyptians; and he communicated it to Hiram, the Master Mason concerned in building Solomon’s Temple in Jerusalem."
Besides the absurdity of deriving Masonry from the building of Babel, where, according to the story, the confusion of languages prevented the builders understanding each other, and consequently of communicating any knowledge they had, there is a glaring contradiction in point of chronology in the account he gives.
Solomon’s Temple was built and dedicated 1004 years before the christian era; and Euclid, as may be seen in the tables of chronology, lived 277 before the same era. It was therefore impossible that Euclid could communicate any thing to Hiram, since Euclid did not live till 700 years after the time of Hiram.
In 1783, Captain George Smith, inspector of the Royal Artillery Academy at Woolwich, in England, and Provincial Grand Master of Masonry for the county of Kent, published a treatise entitled, The Use and Abuse of Free-Masonry.
In his chapter of the antiquity of Masonry, he makes it to be coeval with creation, "when," says he, "the sovereign architect raised on Masonic principles the beauteous globe, and commanded the master science, Geometry, to lay the planetary world, and to regulate by its laws the whole stupendous system in just unerring proportion, rolling round the central sun."
"But," continues he, "I am not at liberty publicly to undraw the curtain, and openly to descant on this head; it is sacred, and ever will remain so; those who are honored with the trust will not reveal it, and those who are ignorant of it cannot betray it." By this last part of the phrase, Smith means the two inferior classes, the Fellow Craft and the Entered Apprentice, for he says in the next page of his work, "It is not every one that is barely initiated into Free-Masonry that is entrusted with all the mysteries thereto belonging; they are not attainable as things of course, nor by every capacity."
The learned, but unfortunate Doctor Dodd, Grand Chaplain of Masonry, in his oration at the dedication of Free-Mason’s Hall, London, traces Masonry through a variety of stages. Masons, says he, are well informed from their own private and interior records that the building of Solomon’s Temple is an important era, from whence they derive many mysteries of their art. "Now (says he,) be it remembered that this great event took place above 1000 years before the Christian era, and consequently more than a century before Homer, the first of the Grecian Poets, wrote; and above five centuries before Pythagoras brought from the east his sublime system of truly masonic instruction to illuminate our western world. But, remote as this period is, we date not from thence the commencement of our art. For though it might owe to the wise and glorious King of Israel some of its many mystic forms and hieroglyphic ceremonies, yet certainly the art itself is coeval with man, the great subject of it. "We trace," continues he, "its footsteps in the most distant, the most remote ages and nations of the world. We find it among the first and most celebrated civilizers of the East. We deduce it regularly from the first astronomers on the plains of Chaldea, to the wise and mystic kings and priests of Egypt, the sages of Greece, and the philosophers of Rome."
From these reports and declarations of Masons of the highest order in the institution, we see that Masonry, without publicly declaring so, lays claim to some divine communication from the creator, in a manner different from, and unconnected with, the book which the christians call the bible; and the natural result from this is, that Masonry is derived from some very ancient religion, wholly independent of and unconnected with that book.
To come then at once to the point, Masonry (as I shall show from the customs, ceremonies, hieroglyphics, and chronology of Masonry) is derived and is the remains of the religion of the ancient Druids; who, like the Magi of Persia and the Priests of Heliopolis in Egypt, were Priests of the Sun. They paid worship to this great luminary, as the great visible agent of a great invisible first cause whom they styled " Time without limits." [NOTE: Zarvan-Akarana. This personification of Boundless Time, though a part of Parsee Theology, seems to be a later monotheistic dogma, based on perversions of the Zendavesta. See Haug’s "Religion of the Parsees." — Editor.]
The christian religion and Masonry have one and the same common origin: both are derived from the worship of the Sun. The difference between their origin is, that the christian religion is a parody on the worship of the Sun, in which they put a man whom they call Christ, in the place of the Sun, and pay him the same adoration which was originally paid to the Sun, as I have shown in the chapter on the origin of the Christian religion. [NOTE: Referring to an unpublished portion of the work of which this chapter forms a part. — American Editor, 1819 [This paragraph is omitted from the pamphlet copyrighted by Madame Bonneville in 1810, as also is the last sentence of the next paragraph. — Editor.]
In Masonry many of the ceremonies of the Druids are preserved in their original state, at least without any parody. With them the Sun is still the Sun; and his image, in the form of the sun is the great emblematical ornament of Masonic Lodges and Masonic dresses. It is the central figure on their aprons, and they wear it also pendant on the breast in their lodges, and in their processions. It has the figure of a man, as at the head of the sun, as Christ is always represented.
At what period of antiquity, or in what nation, this religion was first established, is lost in the labyrinth of unrecorded time. It is generally ascribed to the ancient Egyptians, the Babylonians and Chaldeans, and reduced afterwards to a system regulated by the apparent progress of the sun through the twelve signs of Zodiac by Zoroaster the law giver of Persia, from whence Pythagoras brought it into Greece. It is to these matters Dr. Dodd refers in the passage already quoted from his oration.
The worship of the Sun as the great visible agent of a great invisible first cause, "Time without limits," spread itself over a considerable part of Asia and Africa, from thence to Greece and Rome, through all ancient Gaul, and into Britain and Ireland.
Smith, in his chapter on the antiquity of Masonry in Britain, says, that "notwithstanding the obscurity which envelopes Masonic history in that country, various circumstances contribute to prove that Free-Masonry was introduced into Britain about 1030 Years before Christ." It cannot be Masonry in its present state that Smith here alludes to. The Druids flourished in Britain at the period he speaks of, and it is from them that Masonry is descended. Smith has put the child in the place of the parent.
It sometimes happens, as well in writing as in conversation, that a person lets slip an expression that serves to unravel what he intends to conceal, and this is the case with Smith, for in the same chapter he says, "The Druids, when they committed any thing to writing, used the Greek alphabet, and I am bold to assert that the most perfect remains of the Druids' rites and ceremonies are preserved in the customs and ceremonies of the Masons that are to be found existing among mankind." "My brethren" says he, "may be able to trace them with greater exactness than I am at liberty to explain to the public."
This is a confession from a Master Mason, without intending it to be so understood by the public, that Masonry is the remains of the religion of the Druids; the reasons for the Masons keeping this a secret I shall explain in the course of this work.
As the study and contemplation of the Creator [is] in the works of the creation, the Sun, as the great visible agent of that Being, was the visible object of the adoration of Druids; all their religious rites and ceremonies had reference to the apparent progress of the Sun through the twelve signs of the Zodiac, and his influence upon the earth. The Masons adopt the same practices. The roof of their Temples or Lodges is ornamented with a Sun, and the floor is a representation of the variegated face of the earth either by carpeting or Mosaic work.
Free Masons Hall, in Great Queen-street, Lincoln’s Inn Fields, London, is a magnificent building, and cost upwards of 12,000 pounds sterling. Smith, in speaking of this building, says (page 152,) "The roof of this magnificent Hall is in all probability the highest piece of finished architecture in Europe. In the center of this roof, a most resplendent Sun is represented in burnished gold, surrounded with the twelve signs of the Zodiac, with their respective characters;

Aries Libra

Taurus Scorpio

Gemini Sagittarius

Cancer Capricorns

Leo Aquarius

Virgo Pisces

After giving this description, he says, "The emblematical meaning of the Sun is well known to the enlightened and inquisitive Free-Mason; and as the real Sun is situated in the center of the universe, so the emblematical Sun is the center of real Masonry. We all know (continues he) that the Sun is the fountain of light, the source of the seasons, the cause of the vicissitudes of day and night, the parent of vegetation, the friend of man; hence the scientific Free-Mason only knows the reason why the Sun is placed in the center of this beautiful hall."
The Masons, in order to protect themselves from the persecution of the christian church, have always spoken in a mystical manner of the figure of the Sun in their Lodges, or, like the astronomer Lalande, who is a Mason, been silent upon the subject. It is their secret, especially in Catholic countries, because the figure of the Sun is the expressive criterion that denotes they are descended from the Druids, and that wise, elegant, philosophical religion, was the faith opposite to the faith of the gloomy Christian church. [NOTE: This sentence is omitted in Madame Bonneville’s publication. — Editor.]
The Lodges of the Masons, if built for the purpose, are constructed in a manner to correspond with the apparent motion of the Sun. They are situated East and West. [NOTE: The Freemason’s Hall in London, which Paine has correctly described, is situated North and South, the exigencies of the space having been too strong for Masonic orthodoxy. Though nominally eastward the Master stands at the South. — Editor.] The master’s place is always in the East. In the examination of an Entered Apprentice, the Master, among many other questions, asks him,
Q: How is the lodge situated?
A: East and West.
Q: Why so?
A: Because all churches and chapels are, or ought to be so.
This answer, which is mere catechismal form, is not an answer to the question. It does no more than remove the question a point further, which is, why ought all churches and chapels to be so? But as the Entered Apprentice is not initiated into the druidical mysteries of Masonry, he is not asked any questions a direct answer to which would lead thereto.
Q: Where stands your Master?
A: In the East.
Q: Why so?
A: As the Sun rises in the East and opens the day, so the Master stands in the East, (with his right hand upon his left breast, being a sign, and the square about his neck,) to open the Lodge, and set his men at work.
Q: Where stand your Wardens?
A: In the West.
Q: What is their business?
A: As the Sun sets in the West to close the day, so the Wardens stand in the West, (with their right hands upon their left breasts, being a sign, and the level and plumb rule about their necks,) to close the Lodge, and dismiss the men from labor, paying them their wages.
Here the name of the Sun is mentioned, but it is proper to observe that in this place it has reference only to labor or to the time of labor, and not to any religious druidical rite or ceremony, as it would have with respect to the situation of Lodges East and West. I have already observed in the chapter on the origin of the christian religion, that the situation of churches East and West is taken from the worship of the Sun, which rises in the east, and has not the least reference to the person called Jesus Christ. The christians never bury their dead on the North side of a church; [NOTE: In many parts of Northern Europe the North was supposed to be the region of demons. Executed criminals were buried on the north side of churches. — Editor.] and a Mason’s Lodge always has, or is supposed to have, three windows which are called fixed lights, to distinguish them from the moveable lights of the Sun and the Moon. The Master asks the Entered Apprentice,
Q: How are they (the fixed lights) situated?
A: East, West, and South.
Q: What are their uses?
A: To light the men to and from their work.
Q: Why are there no lights in the North?
A: Because the Sun darts no rays from thence.
This, among numerous other instances, shows that the christian religion and Masonry have one and the same common origin, the ancient worship of the Sun.
The high festival of the Masons is on the day they call St. John’s day; but every enlightened Mason must know that holding their festival on this day has no reference to the person called St. John, and that it is only to disguise the true cause of holding it on this day, that they call the day by that name. As there were Masons, or at least Druids, many centuries before the time of St. John, if such person ever existed, the holding their festival on this day must refer to some cause totally unconnected with John.
The case is, that the day called St. John’s day, is the 24th of June, and is what is called Midsummer-day. The sun is then arrived at the summer solstice; and, with respect to his meridional altitude, or height at high noon, appears for some days to be of the same height. The astronomical longest day, like the shortest day, is not every year, on account of leap year, on the same numerical day, and therefore the 24th of June is always taken for Midsummer-day; and it is in honor of the sun, which has then arrived at his greatest height in our hemisphere, and not any thing with respect to St. John, that this annual festival of the Masons, taken from the Druids, is celebrated on Midsummer-day.
Customs will often outlive the remembrance of their origin, and this is the case with respect to a custom still practiced in Ireland, where the Druids flourished at the time they flourished in Britain. On the eve of Saint John’s day, that is, on the eve of Midsummer-day, the Irish light fires on the tops of the hills. This can have no reference to St. John; but it has emblematical reference to the sun, which on that day is at his highest summer elevation, and might in common language be said to have arrived at the top of the hill.
As to what Masons, and books of Masonry, tell us of Solomon’s Temple at Jerusalem, it is no wise improbable that some Masonic ceremonies may have been derived from the building of that temple, for the worship of the Sun was in practice many centuries before the Temple existed, or before the Israelites came out of Egypt. And we learn from the history of the Jewish Kings, 2 Kings xxii. xxiii. that the worship of the Sun was performed by the Jews in that Temple. It is, however, much to be doubted if it was done with the same scientific purity and religious morality with which it was performed by the Druids, who, by all accounts that historically remain of them, were a wise, learned, and moral class of men. The Jews, on the contrary, were ignorant of astronomy, and of science in general, and if a religion founded upon astronomy fell into their hands, it is almost certain it would be corrupted. We do not read in the history of the Jews, whether in the Bible or elsewhere, that they were the inventors or the improvers of any one art or science. Even in the building of this temple, the Jews did not know how to square and frame the timber for beginning and carrying on the work, and Solomon was obliged to send to Hiram, King of Tyre (Zidon) to procure workmen; "for thou knowest, (says Solomon to Hiram, i Kings v. 6.) that there is not among us any that can skill to hew timber like unto the Zidonians." This temple was more properly Hiram’s Temple than Solomon’s, and if the Masons derive any thing from the building of it, they owe it to the Zidonians and not to the Jews. — But to return to the worship of the Sun in this Temple.
It is said, 2 Kings xxiii. 5, "And [king Josiah] put down all the idolatrous priests ... that burned incense unto ... the sun, the moon, the planets, and all the host of heaven." And it is said at the 11th verse: "And he took away the horses that the kings of Judah had given to the Sun, at the entering in of the house of the Lord, ... and burned the chariots of the Sun with fire"; verse 13, "And the high places that were before Jerusalem, which were on the right hand of the mount of corruption, which Solomon the king of Israel had builded for Ashtoreth, the abomination of the Zidonians" (the very people that built the temple) "did the king defile."
Besides these things, the description that Josephus gives of the decorations of this Temple, resembles on a large scale those of a Mason’s Lodge. He says that the distribution of the several parts of the Temple of the Jews represented all nature, particularly the parts most apparent of it, as the sun, the moon, the planets, the zodiac, the earth, the elements; and that the system of the world was retraced there by numerous ingenious emblems. These, in all probability, are, what Josiah, in his ignorance, calls the abominations of the Zidonians. [NOTE by PAINE: Smith, in speaking of a Lodge, says, when the Lodge is revealed to an entering Mason, it discovers to him a representation of the World; in which, from the wonders of nature, we are led to contemplate her great original, and worship him from his mighty works; and we are thereby also moved to exercise those moral and social virtues which become mankind as the servants of the great Architect of the world. — Author.] Every thing, however, drawn from this Temple [NOTE by PAINE: It may not be improper here to observe, that the law called the law of Moses could not have been in existence at the time of building this Temple. Here is the likeness of things in heaven above and in earth beneath. And we read in I Kings vi., vii., that Solomon made cherubs and cherubims, that he carved all the walls of the house round about with cherubims, and palm-trees, and open flowers, and that he made a molten sea, placed on twelve oxen, and the ledges of it were ornamented with lions, oxen, and cherubims: all this is contrary to the law called the law of Moses. — Author.] and applied to Masonry, still refers to the worship of the Sun, however corrupted or misunderstood by the Jews, and consequently to the religion of the Druids.
Another circumstance, which shows that Masonry is derived from some ancient system, prior to and unconnected with the christian religion, is the chronology, or method of counting time, used by the Masons in the records of their Lodges. They make no use of what is called the christian era; and they reckon their months numerically, as the ancient Egyptians did, and as the Quakers do now. I have by me, a record of a French Lodge, at the time the late Duke of Orleans, then Duke de Chartres, was Grand Master of Masonry in France. It begins as follows: "Le trentieme jour du sixieme mois de l'an de la V.L. cinq mille sept cent soixante treize;" that is, the thirteenth day of the sixth month of the year of the Venerable Lodge, five thousand seven hundred and seventy-three. By what I observe in English books of Masonry, the English Masons use the initials A.L. and not V.L. By A.L. they mean in the year of Light, as the Christians by A.D. mean in the year of our Lord. But A.L. like V.L. refers to the same chronological era, that is, to the supposed time of the creation. [NOTE: V.L. are the initials of Vraie Lumiere, true light; and A.L. of Anne Lucis, in the year of light. This and the three preceding sentences (of the text) are suppressed in Madame Bonneville’s pamphlet, 1810. — Editor.] In the chapter on the origin of the Christian religion, I have shown that the Cosmogony, that is, the account of the creation with which the book of Genesis opens, has been taken and mutilated from the Zend-Avesta of Zoroaster, and was fixed as a preface to the Bible after the Jews returned from captivity in Babylon, and that the Robbins of the Jews do not hold their account in Genesis to be a fact, but mere allegory. The six thousand years in the Zend-Avesta, is changed or interpolated into six days in the account of Genesis. The Masons appear to have chosen the same period, and perhaps to avoid the suspicion and persecution of the Church, have adopted the era of the world, as the era of Masonry. The V.L. of the French, and A.L. of the English Mason, answer to the A.M. Anno Mundi, or year of the world.
Though the Masons have taken many of their ceremonies and hieroglyphics from the ancient Egyptians, it is certain they have not taken their chronology from thence. If they had, the church would soon have sent them to the stake; as the chronology of the Egyptians, like that of the Chinese, goes many thousand years beyond the Bible chronology.
The religion of the Druids, as before said, was the same as the religion of the ancient Egyptians. The priests of Egypt were the professors and teachers of science, and were styled priests of Heliopolis, that is, of the City of the Sun. The Druids in Europe, who were the same order of men, have their name from the Teutonic or ancient German language; the German being anciently called Teutones. The word Druid signifies a wise man. [NOTE: German drud, wizard. Cf. Milton’s line: "The star-led wizards haste with odours sweet." The word Druid has also been derived from Greek ####;, an oak; Celtic 'deru,' an oak and 'ndd,' lord; British 'deruidhon,' very wise men; Heb. 'derussim,' contemplators; etc. — Editor.] In Persia they were called Magi, which signifies the same thing.
Egypt," says Smith, "from whence we derive many of our mysteries, has always borne a distinguished rank in history, and was once celebrated above all others for its antiquities, learning, opulence, and fertility. In their system, their principal hero- gods, Osiris and Isis, theologically represented the Supreme Being and universal Nature; and physically the two great celestial luminaries, the Sun and the Moon, by whose influence all nature was actuated." "The experienced brethren of the society, [says Smith in a note to this passage] are well informed what affinity these symbols bear to Masonry, and why they are used in all Masonic Lodges." In speaking of the apparel of the Masons in their Lodges, part of which, as we see in their public processions, is a white leather apron, he says, "the Druids were apparelled in white at the time of their sacrifices and solemn offices. The Egyptian priests of Osiris wore snow-white cotton. The Grecian and most other priests wore white garments. As Masons, we regard the principles of those 'who were the first worshipers of the true God,' imitate their apparel, and assume the badge of innocence."
"The Egyptians," continues Smith, "in the earliest ages constituted a great number of Lodges, but with assiduous care kept their secrets of Masonry from all strangers. These secrets have been imperfectly handed down to us by oral tradition only, and ought to be kept undiscovered to the laborers, craftsmen, and apprentices, till by good behavior and long study they become better acquainted in geometry and the liberal arts, and thereby qualified for Masters and Wardens, which is seldom or never the case with English Masons."
Under the head of Free-Masonry, written by the astronomer Lalande, in the French Encyclopedia, I expected from his great knowledge in astronomy, to have found much information on the origin of Masonry; for what connection can there be between any institution and the Sun and twelve signs of the Zodiac, if there be not something in that institution, or in its origin, that has reference to astronomy? Every thing used as an hieroglyphic has reference to the subject and purpose for which it is used; and we are not to suppose the Free-Masons, among whom are many very learned and scientific men, to be such idiots as to make use of astronomical signs without some astronomical purpose. But I was much disappointed in my expectation from Lalande. In speaking of the origin of Masonry, he says, "L'orgine de la maconnerie se Perd, comme tant d'autres, dans l'obscurite des termps;" That is, the origin of Masonry, like many others, loses itself in the obscurity of time. When I came to this expression, I supposed Lalande a Mason, and on enquiry found he was. This passing over saved him from the embarrassment which Masons are under respecting the disclosure of their origin, and which they are sworn to conceal. There is a society of Masons in Dublin who take the name of Druids; these Masons must be supposed to have a reason for taking that name.
I come now to speak of the cause of secrecy used by the Masons.
The natural source of secrecy is fear. When any new religion over-runs a former religion, the professors of the new become the persecutors of the old. We see this in all instances that history brings before us. When Hilkiah the priest and Shaphan the scribe, in the reign of King Josiah, found, or pretended to find, the law, called the law of Moses, a thousand years after the time of Moses, (and it does not appear from 2 Kings, xxii., xxiii., that such a law was ever practiced or known before the time of Josiah), he established that law as a national religion, and put all the priests of the Sun to death. When the christian religion over-ran the Jewish religion, the Jews were the continual subject of persecution in all christian countries. When the Protestant religion in England over-ran the Roman Catholic religion, it was made death for a Catholic priest to be found in England. As this has been the case in all the instances we have any knowledge of, we are obliged to admit it with respect to the case in question, and that when the christian religion over-ran the religion of the Druids in Italy, ancient Gaul, Britain, and Ireland, the Druids became the subject of persecution. This would naturally and necessarily oblige such of them as remained attached to their original religion to meet in secret, and under the strongest injunctions of secrecy. Their safety depended upon it. A false brother might expose the lives of many of them to destruction; and from the remains of the religion of the Druids, thus preserved, arose the institution which, to avoid the name of Druid, took that of Mason, and practiced under this new name the rites and ceremonies of Druids. "

thought for the day/ Neanderthal boating may push the use of that technology fifty thousand years before Homo Sapiens

If this is true . . . well, what to say about that?  One thing, a hundred thousand years ago is a long time ago when the mere shifting of the suns orbit can cause global weather changes, and those global weather changes can drastically change coastlines; global weather changes can hide lots of history of any species much less Human(which ever species).

The transition from hunter gatheror to agricultural just gets more mysterious than ever.

youtube for the day/ Werner Von Braun

It's kindof sad really that this video is the next best thing after James Burke's connections(the mechanical universe videos are no longer available on youtube; they used to be; i have them on dvd!).

Anyways, this video gets any number of interesting responces.  You can point out that Werner Von Braun went ot the military before the Nazies took over; that he never wore a Nazy uniform till 1939; that's like five to six years of doing rocketry under the Nazies without being a nazy!  He did so because Hitler was wondering why he wasn't wearing a uniform.  I guess Werner Von Braun considered himself a civilian working for the military; done in countries all over the world today).  I like further the point how people complain about Werner Von Braun building rockets for the German military(soon to be the Nazy military), but, when taken in by the U.S.A, and despite efforts by him to convince the American's to build space rockets for human expansion, he ends up building military rockets for the Americans!  But, as you can see by comments in this youtube, people continue to post that Werner Von Braun was a Nazy and was doing rocketry for Nazy purposes, over and and over again; they just ignore what they don't want to see.  They want to hate him.


I think this writeup is something more that can be said about the politics of science and . . . politics . . . at this time period of human history.

In the beginning of the "Einstein and Eddington" video, Arthur Eddington meets some guy in charge of the library or university. This principle calls Arthur a Quaker. The video seems to try to argue that Arthur Eddington struggled throughout his life to balance religion with science. A look at Mr Eddington's works suggests otherwise. In all my reading of books that talk more about science than actually do science/mathematics, I've never heard of this till now!

I introduce my review of this pretty good "Einstein and Eddington" film because that's as far as I want to criticize all these kinds of hollywoodization of Albert Einstein and Arthur Eddington. The film seems to me to be showing a remarkable nationalism of both the English and Germans! This seems to me to be what really needs to be considered and talked about than all the hollywoodizations throughout the film(some I'm fine with; some I scratch my head over). And, so, I'm not going to write pages and pages about all the historically inaccuracies of the film!(I don't doubt that Mr Eddington was a Quaker; but, I don't think that he took religion all that seriously! Arthur reminds me more of this guy! . I learned of this guys videos through PBS just a few months ago! When watching a few samples of his videos on PBS, he made some remarks that suggests that he knows about sungods. But, he says he's a christian by tradition. So, it seemed to me that he strikes a good balance of being logical and respecting cultural tradition; so, I bought his videos! I think Arthur Eddington was a Quaker by tradition more than anything else! Also, for more on Quakers in England, see James Burkes video on the origins of industrialism in England! He also notes that the wealth to build up England in the 1600s came at the expence of India princes! James Burke is very willing to point out the errors of the ways of all cultures; but also the positives; he also shows that he prefers science and curiosity; i'm a James Burkian in that way! This link goes to James Burke's "The Day the Universe changed" video which says some remarkable things about life in England as a Quaker!

I for some reason cannot ever get the name of the boss of the Library or University that Arthur Eddington is mostly fighting on his side of the national/intellectual divide. I'll call him the Curator. This curator seems to think that Engish people and their science is superior to the rest of the world simply because Isaac Newton was English. This curator also thinks that science is done and figured out; that all that remains to be done is to calculate to more decimal places! This is a known science historian folklore. And, it's true. If you read almost any science history, they mention that late 1800 scientists thought this. Getting back to the Isaac Newton issue; Isaac Newton and Gotfried Liebniz did fight over the priority of the Calculus. This fight was taken up by those who learned their calculus from Newton and those who learned it from Liebniz. This did create a bit of a situation where because Liebniz's notation was superior, English science went into a hundred year dark ages till Maxwell(a Scottish guy; James Burke is an Irishman!) and Caylay ignored the advice of their Newtonian teachers and created much mathematics and physics. This is what happens when people politicize science. This is a hint that science erases cultural bias as well!

I have it in my notes that Albert Einstein has no allegiance to a given country(neither does Grothendieck! Neither do I!). This goes with the point of the movie which I've already stressed is the main point of the movie. Not much more to say.

The movie seems to suggest on the one hand that we should be objective(Einstein not taking to any nationality), but then they want to argue that Albert's theory of Relativity shows a principle of relativity that justifies all cultures viewpoints. With that, I'd like to first quote a passage in Edna Kramer's "The Nature and Growth of Modern Mathematics" . . .

"A troubles look came over the face of Orestes. As he rose to speak, the dignity of the Roman governor seemed to replace the youthfulness of the dandy. "These riddles of 'Who am I?" What am I?"-shall we, here, try to settle them, when they are as old as thought? Never! We shall quibble from now until the end of time, if once we get started. Why not spend these precious hours in which Hypatia shares her wisdon with us, on pure mathematical questions whose abstract nature will prevent quarrels, and whose logical format will be indisputable?" - Edna Kramer "The Nature and Growth of Modern Mathematics" chapter 4, page 62

This quote is fictional. It is part of a short story introduction to Hypatia and Algebra by Edna. I'm thinking that quote is the main point of making this fictional account of the last days of Hypatia before she was skinned to death by a anti-knowledge christian mob(also, this was the last days of the Roman empire; some, including me, mark her death and the burning of the Library of Alexandria during her lifetime as the beginning of the dark ages of Europe). Hypatia's death, as already noted in parentheses, is also bound up with those who don't want to think factualy or logicaly, or consider new ideas. I've gotten this youtube recently, and, I agree. These people who want to say "respect my religion" are like scientist who cry stop criticizing my theory(creationism, ufos, cold fusion, you name it; psuedo science) because you've got this theory empirically confirmed(everything from Kepler, Galileo, Newton to Einstein, all the quantum physics to particle accellerators; you name it!).

Yes, the problems shown between the English(who are doing just as much nationalism as the Nazy Germans; well, this film is actually before them; although, that group of thinkers goes back to some guy who warped the message of Darwin back in the late 1800s; i'm forgetting his name; James Burke mentions this in one his videos as well! I think it's the Day the Universe Changed episode about Darwin's theory of Evolution; episode 7 I do believe!) and the German, and those who want to cry 'please respect my religion' are the same!